B7-H4 also know as V-set domain-containing T-cell activation inhibitor 1(VTCN1), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the VTCN1 gene. B7H4 belongs to the B7 family of costimulatory proteins. These proteins are expressed on the surface of antigen-presenting cells and interact with ligands on T lymphocytes. B7-H4 is a transmembrane protein that binds an unknown receptor on activated T cells resulting in inhibition of T-cell effector function via cell cycle arrest, decreased proliferation, and reduced IL-2 production. B7-H4 is up-regulated on the surface of cancer cells and immunosuppressive tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in a variety of human cancers. B7-H4 expression levels inversely correlate with patient survival in ovarian cancer, making B7-H4 an attractive candidate for therapeutic intervention.
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