Tissue factor, also called platelet tissue factor, factor III, thromboplastin, or CD142 is a protein encoded by the F3 gene present in subendothelial tissue and leukocytes necessary for the initiation of thrombin formation from the zymogen prothrombin. Tissue factor (TF) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is essential for hemostasis. It binds the coagulation serine protease factor VII/VIIa (FVII/VIIa) to form a bimolecular complex that functions as the primary initiator of coagulation in vivo. Many studies have shown that levels of circulating TF in the form of MPs are increased in various diseases, including cardiovascular disease, sepsis, diabetes, and cancer. TF is expressed by all types of cancers. Importantly, TF-dependent activation of coagulation has been implicated in cancer-associated thrombosis and metastasis.
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