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Creative Biolabs provides global customers with highly specific polyglutamylation antibody based on our excellent High-Affi™ technology. Since there is no consensus modification site known for polyglutamylation of proteins, the detection is not sequence-specific. Our antibodies recognize most forms of polyglutamylated tubulin (α- and β-tubulin), independent of the length of the glutamate side chains. It also detects other (poly) glutamylated proteins.
Polyglutamylation is a recently found reversible post-translational modification which done by the enzyme glutamylase and removed by deglutamylase. It takes place on a C-terminus glutamate residue of targeted proteins with first initiated by generating a peptide-like bond between the γ-carboxy group of glutamate residues and the amino group of the first glutamate. Subsequently, the α-carboxy group of the preceding glutamyl can be linked with the amino group of the next glutamate unit to form a polyglutamate chain. The length of polyglutamylation chain can be up to six and deglutamylase can shorten the side chain. Polyglutamylation is evolutionarily conserved and mainly present on various types of microtubules such as alpha and beta tubulins. Polyglutamylation has been proposed to be not involved in direct binding, but cause conformational shifts that regulate binding of microtubule-associated proteins (MAP and Tau) and motors. Recent studies identified a series of substrates and involved in various cellular processes, such as extension and stabilization of axodendritic processes, motility of cilia and flagella, stability of centrosomes, neurite outgrowth, and control cell cycle and cell proliferation. The extent of polyglutamylation is regulated strictly and is critical for cell survival. Polyglutamylation deficiency stabilizes axonemal microtubules, shifting the axonemal assembly/disassembly balance toward assembly. Lack of functional deglutamylase CCP1 show hyperglutamylation of microtubule and directly linked to neurodegeneration. Alternation of polyglutamylation is also linked to tumorigenesis and resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs that target the microtubule.
In the functional regulation of tubulin and microtubules (MTs), polyglutamylation is found concurrently with many other post-translational modifications, including phosphorylation, acetylation, glycosylation, ubiquitination and sumoylation. It leads to that specific tubulin modifications remain a major challenge including enrichment of polyamination.
Fig. 1 Mechanism of polyglutamylation. (Janke C, Rogowski K, and van Dijk J., 2008)
Antibodies are the most commonly used tools to study polyglutamylation. Creative Biolabs has years of experience in the field of antibody development. With our leading and proven technology, we will provide our customers with the best products and the guaranteed service.
In addition to the polyglutamylation-specific antibody, Creative Biolabs also provides a comprehensive list of PTM-specific antibody production services of your choice.
|Glycosylation||ISGylation||Tyrosine sulfation||Tyrosine nitration|
Fatty Acylation (N-Myristoylation,
Janke C, Rogowski K, and van Dijk J. (2008). “Polyglutamylation: A fine-regulator of protein function? 'Protein modifications: Beyond the usual suspects' review series”. EMBO Rep, 9(7): 636-641.
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