The anti-3-nitrotyrosine antibody is a valuable tool for identifying new nitrated proteins, measuring levels of nitrated proteins, as well as studying the function of nitrated proteins. Creative Biolabs provides our customers with highly specific anti-3-nitrotyrosine antibody based on our excellent and mature High-Affi™ technology. The antibody does not cross-react with unmodified tyrosine or with phospho-tyrosine.
Tyrosine nitration is a specific covalent post-translational modification that is derived from the reaction of proteins with nitrating agents. Multiple mechanisms, including nonenzymatic and enzymatic, are related to the production of nitrated tyrosine residues. Most events of tyrosine nitration are catalyzed by metalloproteinases, such as eosinophil peroxidase, myeloperoxidase, the cytochrome P-450s, myoglobin, superoxide dismutase, and prostacyclin synthase. Generally, protein nitration is a usual process in the living organism, and the low levels of O2−, H2O2 and ONOO− are necessary for several signaling pathways and normal cellular function. Meanwhile, tyrosine nitration is a highly selective modification and limited to specific proteins under certain physiological conditions, resulting in either activation or inhibition. The structure and function are also implicated by tyrosine nitration. For example, nitration of tyrosine has been involved in blocking tyrosine phosphorylation which is recognized as a key event in signal transduction cascades.
Tyrosine nitration emerges as a marker of human diseases associated with cell death when the balance of the physiological redox is broken. Nitrotyrosine is a novel indicator of cardiovascular disease, and protein tyrosine nitration has been detected in several compartments of the cardiovascular system. It will assist to shed light on the human cardiovascular pathology with pharmacological strategies directed towards inhibiting protein tyrosine nitration. Emerging data implicate tyrosine nitration as a mediator of immune responses. Tyrosine nitrated proteins can act as neoantigens and lead to the generation of autoantibodies against self-proteins in various autoimmune disorders such as systemic lupus. Tyrosine nitration has shown high relevance to other disease states such as neurodegenerative diseases and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
Fig. 1 Mechanisms of protein tyrosine nitration in the cell and the effect on protein function. (Franco M. C. and Estevez A. G. 2014)
As tyrosine nitration occurs under physiological conditions and its level increases in most disease states, the detection of 3-nitrotyrosine based on immunological techniques has become more and more important. Creative Biolabs has years of experience in exploring antibodies. We will provide services and products with the highest quality according to our customers’ requirements.
In addition to the tyrosine nitration-specific antibody, Creative Biolabs also provides a comprehensive list of PTM-specific antibody production services of your choice.