Introduction of ABCG1
ABCG1, also known as ATP-binding cassette transporter member 1 of subfamily G, ABC8, ABC Transporter 8, WHITE1, WHT1, homolog of drosophila white, or ATP-binding cassette, sub-family G (WHITE) member 1, is a transport protein whose molecular weight is approximately 76 kDa, that is composed of 678 amino acids. In humans, it is encoded by the ABCG1 gene which is mapping at the chromosome 21q22.3. ABCG1 is a member of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter and belongs to the ABCG (White) subfamily, which contains other two members, ABCG5 and ABCG8. This subfamily has been indicated to be critically implicated in the regulation of lipid-trafficking processes in macrophages, hepatocytes, and intestinal mucosa cells. ABCG1 as a product of sterol-induced genes involves in the phospholipid and cholesterol efflux.
|Basic Information of ABCG1|
|Protein Name||ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 1|
|Aliases||ATP-binding cassette transporter 8, White protein homolog|
|Organism||Homo sapiens (Human)|
Function of ABCG1 Membrane Protein
ABCG1 is ubiquitously expressed in various cell types including lymphocytes, myeloid cells, and endothelial cells. As a member of the ABC transporter family, it is responsible for the regulation of cellular cholesterol homeostasis. And the cholesterol homeostasis is important for the cell survival and functions. Specifically, ABCG1 has the ability to export cellular lipids to extracellular acceptors and its primary function is to efflux excess cholesterol from cells to spherical high-density lipoproteins (HDL) for reverse cholesterol transport, which is considered the only way to eliminate the cholesterol from bodies. Meanwhile, it can efflux cholesterol to low-density lipoproteins (LDL), liposomes, cyclodextrin, and export phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin, and oxysterols to HDL and albumin. Moreover, ABCG1 is also essential for the intracellular transport of cholesterol. As this protein is a transmembrane half-transporter, the dimerization is required for its functions. Though ABCG1 is generally acting as a homodimer, some recent studies suggested it can also form heterodimers.
Fig.1 Hypothetical model for ABCA1 and ABCG1 regulation of adipose fat storage. (Murphy, 2015)
Application of ABCG1 Membrane Protein in Literature
The data from this paper suggested that the promotion of LXRα-ABCA1/ABCG1-dependent cholesterol efflux was a critical event in suppressing lipid accumulations by dihydromyricetin in the transformation of macrophage foam cells.
Present studies had advised that heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) probably played a crucial role in cardiovascular diseases. HSP70 can promote the progression of atherosclerosis in apoE-/- mice by inhibiting the expression of ABCA1 and ABCG1 by the JNK/Elk-1 pathway.
This review indicated that membrane cholesterol distribution contributed to the insulin homeostasis at production, packaging, and export levels via actions of OSBP as well as ABCs G1 and A1.
Regulating IL-32 in human primary liver cell lines, HepG2 and THP-1, strongly affected the mRNA expression of ABCA1, ABCG1, LXRα and apoA1 and influenced intracellular lipid concentrations in the presence of endogenous IL-32. The data firstly showed an essential role for IL32 in cholesterol homeostases.
KWG decreased intracellular lipid accumulations and mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines in macrophages by enhancing LXRα-ABCA1/ABCG1 pathway and suppressing NFκB activation. In summary, the result highlighted that KWG can attenuate atherosclerosis by inhibiting the foam cell formation and inflammatory response.
ABCG1 Preparation Options
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