Introduction of ADGRG1
ADGRG1, also known as G-protein coupled receptor 56 (GPR56) or Protein TM7XN1 (TM7XN1), is a protein encoded by the ADGRG1 gene. It is a member of the adhesion GPCR family, which are characterized by an extended extracellular region often possessing N-terminal protein modules that are linked to a TM7 region via a domain known as the GPCR-Autoproteolysis Inducing (GAIN) domain. It has a 377-residue ECR composed of two domains: an N-terminal pentraxin and laminin/neurexin/sex hormone-binding globulin-like (PLL) domain and a GAIN domain.
|Basic Information of ADGRG1|
|Protein Name||Adhesion G-protein coupled receptor G1|
|Aliases||G-protein coupled receptor 56, Protein TM7XN1, ADGRG1 NT|
|Organism||Homo sapiens (Human)|
Function of ADGRG1 Membrane Protein
During the past years, ADGRG1 has been extensively studied. It has been reported that ADGRG1 is widely expressed in many tissues, such as liver, muscle, neural, and cytotoxic lymphoid cells in human as well as in hematopoietic precursor, muscle, and developing neural cells in the mouse. Also, it is involved in diverse biological processes, including but not limited to cell guidance/adhesion, tumor inhibition, and neuron development. Studies have suggested that ADGRG1 is able to regulate cell adhesion through cell-ECM interaction and G-protein-coupled signaling.What’s more, ADGRG1can also be used as a marker for cytotoxic T cells and a subgroup of natural killer cells. Recently, research reports that GPR56 is downregulated in metastatic melanoma and could inhibit the growth and metastasis of the human melanoma cell line, MC-1.
Application of ADGRG1 Membrane Protein in Literature
1. Giera S., et.al. Microglial transglutaminase-2 drives myelination and myelin repair via GPR56/ADGRG1 in oligodendrocyte precursor cells. eLife. 2018, e33385. PubMed ID: 29809138
This article reports that microglia-derived transglutaminase-2 (TG2) signal to ADGRG1 on OL precursor cells (OPCs) in the presence of the ECM protein laminin and that TG2/laminin-dependent activation of ADGRG1 promotes OPC proliferation. It indicates that ADGRG1 is involved in the novel glia-to-glia signaling pathway which could promote myelin formation and repair, and suggest new strategies to enhance remyelination.
2. Ackerman SD., et.al. GPR56/ADGRG1 regulates development and maintenance of peripheral myelin. Journal of Experimental Medicine. 2018, 215(3): 941-61. PubMed ID: 29367382
This article suggests that Gpr56 plays a role in the regulation of the development and maintenance of peripheral myelin.
3. Millar MW, et.al. The Adhesion G-Protein-Coupled Receptor, GPR56/ADGRG1, Inhibits Cell-Extracellular Matrix Signaling to Prevent Metastatic Melanoma Growth. Frontiers in oncology. 2018, 8: 8. PubMed ID: 29450192
This article suggests that GPR56 in melanoma metastases could inhibit ECM accumulation and adhesion, which contributes to its negative effects on metastatic growth.
4. Moreno M., et.al. GPR56/ADGRG1 Inhibits Mesenchymal Differentiation and Radioresistance in Glioblastoma. Cell reports. 2017, 21(8): 2183-97. PubMed ID: 29166609
This article reveals that GPR56 can be used as an inhibitor of the nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) signaling pathway, thereby providing the rationale by which this receptor prevents mesenchymal differentiation and radioresistance.
5. Tseng WY., et.al. High levels of soluble GPR56/ADGRG1 are associated with positive rheumatoid factor and elevated tumor necrosis factor in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection. 2017, 51(4): 485-491. PubMed ID: 28690029
This report suggests that sGPR56 is present in vivo and the sGPR56 level is elevated in certain chronic inflammatory diseases such as RA. Hence, sGPR56 might be considered a potential biomarker for RA disease progression.
ADGRG1 Preparation Options
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