Creative Biolabs offers our global customers with highly specific anti ADP-ribosylation antibody production services based on our excellent High-Affi™ technology. With different immunization strategies, our antibodies recognize different patterns of ADP-ribosylation, such as mono-ADP-ribosylation, poly-ADP-ribosylation (PARylation) or site-specific ADP-ribosylation modification. The antibody does not cross-react with 5'-AMP or RNA.
ADP-ribosylation is a post-translational modification which is initiated with transferring one or more ADP-ribose moieties from NAD+ to target proteins, forming mono-ADP-ribosylation or poly-ADP-ribosylation (PARylation). It often takes place on arginine, cysteine, lysine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, and asparagine residues. Protein ADP-ribosylation is a reversible and dynamic process that is catalyzed by a group of ADP-ribosyltransferases (ARTs) and degraded by a series of ADP-ribosylhydrolases.
Mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase has been detected in numerous vertebrate tissues and demonstrated with diverse substrates such as phosphorylase kinase, actin, and Gs alpha. Poly-ADP-ribosylation (PAR) is usually generated in high amounts in response to cellular stress, especially genotoxic stimuli. Poly-ADP-ribosylation is catalyzed by poly ADP-ribosyltransferases which continue to add ADP-ribose moieties from NAD+ to the initial ADP-ribose through glycosidic bonds. It can form linear chain of poly ADP-ribosome (PAR) and also generate branched form by α (1→2)-ADP-ribose linkage. ADP-ribosylation has the potential to regulate multiple biological processes, including DNA repair, gene transcription, signal transduction, cell proliferation and apoptosis. Under normal conditions, the low basal level of ADP-ribosylation is presented in cells. As exposed to DNA damaging agents, cells rapidly increase the synthesis of PADPR polymer with 1700 fold above basal level in vitro, and then the modification is degraded with a short half life. Improper ADP-ribosylation has been implicated in many diseases, such as cancers, autoimmune diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases.
Fig. 1 Chemical structures of NAD+, nicotinamide (NAm), and PAR. (Kim M Y, et al. 2005)
ADP-ribosylation also interacts with other post-translational modifications, including phosphorylation, acetylation, ubiquitination, sumoylation, and methylation. They can modify the same sites or adjacent sites on the same targets during different biological processes. Recent studies showed that ADP-ribosylation competes with acetylation at H4K16 for gene transcription. ADP-ribosylation is also an activator for protein ubiquitination, as E3 ligases recognize poly ADP-ribosylated substrates and catalyze ubiquitination following PARylation.
Antibodies are common used tools to study ADP-ribosylation. Creative Biolabs provides cutting edge services for the development of antibodies, which are widely used in basic research, clinical diagnostic or drug development.
Creative Biolabs can provide a comprehensive list of PTM-specific antibody production services of your choice.