Adrenergic receptors are seven-transmembrane receptors, which consist of a single polypeptide chain with seven hydrophobic regions that form alpha-helical structures that span or transverse the membrane. These receptors mediate the central and peripheral actions of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and the hormone epinephrine (adrenaline), which are catecholamine messengers that play important roles in the regulation of diverse physiological systems. The adrenergic receptors are divided into three major types: alpha-1, alpha-2, and beta. Each of these three receptors types is further divided into three subtypes. Each of these receptors couples to a distinct class of G proteins and they can also interact with other signaling proteins and pathways.
Adrenergic receptors are clinically important due to their key role in physiology, therapeutic potential as drug targets, and the contribution to different diseases. Thus, they have been actively studied for their pharmacological and molecular characteristics. Drugs which activate or inhibit adrenergic receptors have proven useful in the treatment of a variety of disorders, including nasal congestion, hypertension, glaucoma, asthma, premature labor, benign prostatic hypertrophy, and angina.
Here, we give an introduction to each subtype of adrenergic receptors, involving their structure, distribution, signaling pathways, physiologic actions, functions in disease pathology, and ligand development, etc.
Due to their importance and relevance in human physiology and pharmacology, investigators have been focusing on these receptors for different applications. To promote the research development of our clients, Creative Biolabs now provides custom-oriented services in the reconstitution of membrane proteins into various formats. Aided by our versatile Magic™ membrane protein production platform, Creative Biolabs is proud to solubilize/stabilize your target proteins in different membrane-like environments, ranging from classical detergent micelles and proteoliposomes to new emerging nanodiscs, lipoparticles, amphipols, and SMALPs. Having a group of seasoned scientists, we can help to choose an optimal format for your protein based on the required downstream applications and the biochemistry of the targets.
Specifically, our Magic™ membrane protein antibody discovery platform is able to develop highly functional anti-membrane protein antibodies against your target antigens. Creative Biolabs also presents DNA immunization service for anti-membrane protein antibody development. If you are interested in our services, please feel free to contact us for more information.