The angiotensin II receptor family is composed of two receptors: AGTR1 and AGTR2. They belong to the G-protein-coupled receptor family and they bind angiotensin II as their ligands. Angiotensin II is a multifunctional peptide hormone and the principle effector molecule of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) that regulates a variety of biological functions, including regulation of blood pressure, plasma volume, and cardiac, renal and neuronal functions, and thirst responses. AGTR1 mediates the classic physiological effects of Angiotensin II, such as vasoconstriction, aldosterone, and vasopressin, sodium and water retention, sympathetic facilitation, cell proliferation, etc. On the other hand, AGTR2 may exhibit opposing biological functions. This receptor is more plentiful in fetus and neonate. Studies have reported a role for AGTR2 in cardiovascular, brain, and renal function as well as in cell differentiation, tissue repair, and apoptosis.
Since angiotensin II receptors are involved in so many physiological processes and the pathophysiology of different diseases, they have been extensively studied and therapeutic interventions have also been developed. Here, we give an introduction of these two human angiotensin II receptors regarding the structure, signaling pathway, biological functions, etc.
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