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Leukemia

Leukemia

Leukemia, generally refers to cancers of the WBCs. In America, more than forty thousand people are diagnosed with leukemia each year. It arises in the bone marrow, the soft, sponge-like material inside long bones of four limbs, where blood cells form. Under healthy circumstance, mature blood cells migrate from bone marrow into the blood circulatory system, but in the bone marrow of leukemia patient, some white blood cells divide too fast and cannot get mature as a result of incorrectly development, which finally crowd out the normal, healthy ones. As WBCs play a vital role in protecting body from microbe infection and abnormal cells invasion, the loss of WBCs leads body into a dangerous situation. Gene mutation, chromosome fraction rearrangement, and the exposure to radiation, chemicals are the possible causes of this disease. Meanwhile, heredity and virus infection are also linked to the development of leukemia.

Depending on the type and the growth rate of cell affected, people classify leukemia into four groups:

Leukemia

Leukemia, generally refers to cancers of the WBCs. In America, more than forty thousand people are diagnosed with leukemia each year. It arises in the bone marrow, the soft, sponge-like material inside long bones of four limbs, where blood cells form. Under healthy circumstance, mature blood cells migrate from bone marrow into the blood circulatory system, but in the bone marrow of leukemia patient, some white blood cells divide too fast and cannot get mature as a result of incorrectly development, which finally crowd out the normal, healthy ones. As WBCs play a vital role in protecting body from microbe infection and abnormal cells invasion, the loss of WBCs leads body into a dangerous situation. Gene mutation, chromosome fraction rearrangement, and the exposure to radiation, chemicals are the possible causes of this disease. Meanwhile, heredity and virus infection are also linked to the development of leukemia.

Depending on the type and the growth rate of cell affected, people classify leukemia into four groups:

Lymphoma

Lymphoma is a group of blood cancers that originates from cells of the lymph system. As the broad distribution range of lymph system, lymphoma can start almost anywhere through the body. The two main categories of lymphomas are Hodgkin lymphoma (accounts for 10% ) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL accounts for about 90% ). Although both of these two types can occur at any age, lymphoma is most commonly diagnosed in young people. Hodgkin lymphoma can be classified into many subtypes, however, most cases are usually classic type of abnormal B lymphocyte, called Reed-Sternberg cells. Hodgkin lymphoma are usually treatable. NHL also has different types depending on the white blood cells types they arise from, such as B-cells, T-cells and NK cells. Scientists have identified certain risk factors which may be related to the development of lymphoma, such as age, sex, location, infection Immune deficiency etc. Although there’re some common ones, the signs and symptoms of lymphoma vary between different types. Thus the treatment and the out come may depend on the grade and the type of this disease.

In 2008, WHO classified lymphoma into 5 subtypes (NHL are classifed into 4 subtypes):

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Carcinoma

Carcinoma is a kind of cancer that derived from epithelial cells. It begins from the cells of the skin or the tissue lining the entire surfaces of the body, such as the liver or the kidneys. Carcinoma occurs when the DNA of a cell is damaged or changed and the cell begins to grow out of control. They become abnormal and subsequentlly invade other tissues. Carcinomas happen more often in adults whereas rare among children before their adolescence.

Carcinomas mainly include renal cell carcinoma, melanoma, cervical carcinoma, adenocarcinomas, lung malignancy, colorectal cancer, prostate cancer and breast cancer. Depending on the various tissues carcinomas originating from, the sign and symptom might vary. However, the most common symptom is a lump under the skin, other symtoms may include skin discolorations, pains, etc.

Creative Biolabs provides CAR modified T cells or natural killer (NK) cells targeting a variety of carcinoma-specific antigens. If you require any further information, please do not hesitate to contact us.

Carcinoma can be divided into different groups:

Sarcoma

Sarcomas are the malignant tumors of connective tissues. They can be grouped into two main types, soft tissue sarcomas and bone sarcomas (bone cancer), both of which are further divided into several subtypes based on their possible cell types of origin. More than one third of soft tissue sarcomas occur in the legs. This type of sarcomas can invade tissue around the original site and can metastasize to other organs, while some soft tissue sarcomas are non-cancerous. The second type of sarcoma includes: osteosarcoma, Ewing’s sarcoma and chondrosarcoma, which are usually diagnosed in children. The treatment of sarcomas depends on the size, location, type and grade of the disease. Besides surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy as the traditional treatment options, some innovative biological therapies are also used to activate the potential of the immune system, or being carried out in clinical trials for treating soft tissue sarcomas. Research reports indicate people with genetic abnormalities, or have been exposed to high dose of radiation, cancerigenic chemical are always at a more potential risk of developing this disease.

The subtypes of sarcomas are listed here:

Blastoma

Blastoma is a general term for any tumor in a group of cancers that almost uniquely affects children, which is thought to arise in precursor cells or blasts (immature or embryonic tissue). However, they can originate from different parts of the body, like the brain, liver, kidneys, nervous system, bones and the retina. Thus, people name each type of blastoma its own specific term according to its location in the body, such as the most common types (which make up of 25% of all malignant tumors in children younger than 15): hepatoblastoma (a tumor of liver), medulloblastoma (a type of brain tumor), nephroblastoma (a kidney tumor) and neuroblastoma (a tumor of neural origin). People still don’t know very well about the causes of blastomas, although the genetic errors, but not external factors are thought to be possible reasons, e. g. hepatoblastoma is related to certain genetic syndromes and inherited problems. Many blastomas are considered to be curable, and some localized neuroblastomas can even be cured with surgery alone.

People classify blastoma into different groups:

Glioma

A glioma is a type of tumor that occurs in the brain or spine, which arises from glial cells. Based on the histological features, Gliomas are mainly classified into ependymomas (develop in ependymal cells), astrocytomas (develop in astrocytes), Oligodendrogliomas (develop in oligodendrocytes), brainstem glioma (develop in the brain stem), Optic nerve glioma (develop in or around the optic nerve) and mixed gliomas (develop in other different types of glia). Because the sites of affected central nervous system are various, the symptoms of gliomas are different. For instance, a glioma in the brain can result in headaches, vomiting, seizures, and cranial nerve disorders caused by increased intracranial pressure. A glioma developing in the optic nerve can cause visual loss. Treatment for gliomas depends on the location of cancer, the cell types, and the grade of disease. Normally, surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy with a combined approaches are used. Considering that these traditional methods have certain side effects, we provide CellRapeutic™ CAR products targeting glioma-specific antigens to assist your development of new treatments in clinical trials.

People classify Glioma into these types:

Germ Cell Tumor

A germ cell tumor (GCT) is a neoplasm which arises from germ cells. GCT can be cancerous or noncancerous (benign) tumors that are mainly composed of germ cells. They are rare and account for approximately 2 to 4 % of childhood and adolescent cancer, which are diagnosed in people around 20 or younger. For malignant GCT, they can metastasize to elsewhere of the body such as the lungs, liver, lymph nodes, central nervous system and sometimes the bone, bone marrow, and other organs.

The cause of GCT is still unknown. However, several inherited defects such as the central nervous system and genitourinary tract malformations, major malformations of the lower spine can all be the possible factors to increase the risk of developing GCT.

The most common symptoms of GCT include swelling, mass that can be touched or seen, increased levels of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), high level beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (ß-HCG), constipation, incontinence, leg weakness, abdominal pain or shortness of breath. Based on the location and size of the disease, the symptoms may vary.

People classify germ cell tumor into two groups:

Viral Infection

Besides various cancers, Creative Biolabs also provides customer with CellRapeutic™ Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) products targeting viral antigens and viral-associated cancer antigens. Here, we now offer customer cutting edge CAR-T products targeting a range of viral antigens arising from Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), Cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Adenovirus (Adv).

The EBV, also known as human herpesvirus 4 (HHV-4), is one of the eight viruses in herpes family, and is one of the most common viruses in human. Infection with EBV is associated with several cancers like Hodgkin's lymphoma, Burkitt's lymphoma, gastric cancer, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and certain autoimmune diseases such as dermatomyositis, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren's syndrome and multiple sclerosis. The Cytomegalovirus (CMV), also known as human herpesvirus-5 (HHV-5), is a kind of viruses in the Herpesviridae family. CMV infection is a common incident that can affect any people. There's no efficient treatment for CMV, however, compounds can help treat newborns and individuals with weak immune systems.

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Kits for CARs/TCRs Development

Cellular therapy is emerging as one of the most promising cancer treatments. With ample expertise and talented team, we guide our clients, every step of the way, to accelerate and promote the progress of your CART/TCRT projects. With access to the cellular therapy’s comprehensive portfolios, our scientists have developed a comprehensive set of kits to facilitate your projects.

If you have any other requirements which are not covered by our kits, please feel free to let us know, and our scientists will tailor custom kits or services for you if necessary.

Autoimmune Diseases

Overview

An autoimmune disease is a pathological state arising from an abnormal immune response of the body to substances and tissues that are normally present in the body. Autoimmune disease affects up to 50 million Americans, according to the American Autoimmune Related Diseases Association (AARDA). There are as many as 80 types of autoimmune diseases. Many of them have similar symptoms, which makes them very difficult to diagnose. Autoimmune diseases can affect almost any part of the body, including the heart, brain, nerves, muscles, skin, eyes, joints, lungs, kidneys, glands, the digestive tract, and blood vessels.

Signs, symptoms and treatments

Symptoms vary depending on the disorder and the part of the body affected. Some autoimmune disorders affect certain types of tissue throughout the body—for example, blood vessels, cartilage, or skin. Other autoimmune disorders affect a particular organ. Virtually any organ, including the kidneys, lungs, heart, and brain, can be affected. The resulting inflammation and tissue damage can cause pain, deformed joints, weakness, jaundice, itching, difficulty breathing, accumulation of fluid (edema), delirium, and even death. The treatment of autoimmune diseases is typically with immunosuppression medication that decreases the immune response. New novel treatments include Cytokine blockade (or the blockade of cytokine signaling pathways), removal of effector T-cells and B-cells (e.g. anti-CD20 therapy can be effective at removing instigating B-cells). Intravenous Immunoglobulin has been helpful in treating some antibody mediated autoimmune diseases as well, possibly through negative feedback mechanisms.

Associated Antigen Target

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