Carbamylation-Specific Antibody Production Services

With the help of the excellent High-Affi™ technology, Creative Biolabs can provide highly specific and affinity pan anti-carbamyllysine antibody and site-specific anti-carbamylated protein antibodies production services. These antibodies are produced by immunization with carbamylated BSA or KLH or with a synthetic carbamyl peptide and purified by affinity chromatography. The pan anti-carbamyllysine antibody specifically recognizes proteins with carbamylated lysine residues without species limitation, and site-specific anti-carbamylated antibodies recognize site-specific carbamylated peptide. They do not cross-react with non-modified lysine residues and unmodified peptides.

The characteristics and process of protein carbamylation

Carbamylation is a nonenzymatic catalyzed post-translational modification which occurs throughout the lifespan of proteins in vivo. Carbamylation arises from the binding of isocyanic acid and spontaneously derived from high concentrations of urea, leading to form carbamyllysine or N-terminal carbamylation. Therein, urea-driven carbamylation reactions occur not only on proteins but also on free amino acids.

The substrates and functions of carbamylation

The related diseases of protein carbamylation

Evidence indicates that carbamylation involves the involvement various diseases, as carbamylation reaction alters protein structural and functional properties.

Carbamylation has been reported for other normal diseases such as diabetes and inflammatory diseases.

Protein carbamylation refers to the posttranslational modification of proteins or amino acids via adduction with isocyanic acid, on either the N-terminus of proteins or free amino acids (Nα-carbamylation) or the Nε-amino group of protein lysine residues forming carbamyllysine (homocitrulline). Isocyanic acid is formed through either spontaneous decomposition of urea or myeloperoxidase (MPO)-catalyzed oxidation of thiocyanate at sites of inflammation, including atherosclerotic plaques. Figure 1: Pathways leading to protein carbamylation in vivo. (Verbrugge F H, et al. 2015)

Various methods are used to measure specific carbamylated proteins or general markers of carbamylation. Importantly, carbamylated hemoglobin has become a biomarker of uremia. This point out protein carbamylation may serve as a potential therapeutic target for many diseases.

Creative Biolabs has years of experience in discovery and production of post-translational modification antibodies. Customers can find the most comprehensive PTM antibodies. Our Ph.D. level scientists will provide the highest quality of services and products.

Creative Biolabs can provide a comprehensive list of PTM-specific antibody production services of your choice.


  1. Verbrugge F H, Tang W H, and Hazen S L. (2015) “Protein carbamylation and cardiovascular diseas”. Kidney Int, 88(3): 474-478.

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