Creative Biolabs provides global customers with highly specific citrullination antibody service based on our excellent High-Affi™ technology. The antibodies recognize only citrulline residues on proteins, rather than citrulline.
Citrullination, also known as deamination, is a post-translational modification that Ca2+ dependent peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs) catalyze the conversion of arginine into citrulline. The modified process is conserved in vertebrates, and the process of de-citrulline has not been found to date. The terminal imide groups in arginine are replaced by oxygen in citrulline during citrullination, resulting in the loss of positive charge and the gain of 1 Dalton, leading to changes in protein folding. Therefore, citrullination can change the structure and function of proteins.
Citrullination often occurs on histone proteins, myelin basic protein (MBP) and filaggrin in normal physiological processes and on fibrin and vimentin during cell death and tissue inflammation. As citrulline is not one of the 20 standard amino acids encoded by DNA in the genetic code, it is likely that immune recognition of citrullinated epitopes plays a role in pathogen clearance. However, abnormal citrullination can promote the generation of altered autoantigens and in turn provoke autoimmunity by autoantibodies and T cells. Aberrantly increased citrullination is implicated in diverse human diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, skin physiology, cardiac disease, and neurodegeneration. In rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, citrullinated proteins are specifically targeted by anti-citrullinated peptide antibody (ACPA) which has been established as a marker for RA diagnosis, progress and prognosis in clinical with the sensitivity that exceeds 70 % and specificity that approaches 96-98 %. During the process of cancer initiation and progression, DNA methylation, histone deacetylation, and histone citrullination work synergistically to silence tumor suppressor genes thereby leading to the untamed growth of cancer cells and tissues. As PAD2 is expressed at a high level in the central nervous system (CNS), protein citrullination in the CNS may cause protein denaturation and precipitation, which in turn lead to the Alzheimer’s disease.
Fig. 1 The process, substrates, functions and diseases of citrullination (Jang B and Shin S J. 2013)
Creative Biolabs is one of the most professional companies in producing antibodies with high specific and affinity of various species based on our cutting-edge platforms. Our experienced scientists will design the most appropriate methods and 100% guaranteed service for our customers to meet even the most specific requirements.
In addition to the citrullination-specific antibody, Creative Biolabs also provides a comprehensive list of PTM-specific antibody production services of your choice.