Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) Virus-Like Particles (VLPs)

Creative Biolabs has made long-term commitment to developing excellent-quality virus-like particle (VLP) products. Notably, we recently successfully produces coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) VLPs as ready-to-use products using our state-of-art platform.

Virus-like particles (VLPs) highly resemble the structure of authentic viruses without being infectious. As they do not contain any viral genetic materials, they have great potential to elicit a strong immune response, while will not induce any actual harms. VLPs has emerged one powerful tool in diverse fields, such as vaccines, antibody development, lipoparticle technology, delivery systems, bioimaging and cell targeting.

Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) Virus-Like Particles (VLPs)

Coxsackievirus belongs to the Picornaviridae family including polioviruses and non-polioviruses. The coxsackievirus is a non-poliovirus with two groups A and B. Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) belongs to group A and is a common cause of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). Both CA16 and EV71 are the major viruses responsible for HFMD. While the CA16 infection is thought to cause mild symptoms when compared with EV71, such as ulcers and blisters on the hands, feet and in the mouth as well as pharyngitis in infants and children under five years old, a small number of patients may also develop encephalitis, aseptic meningitis and even fatal myocarditis and pneumonia.

CA16 is a small nonenveloped, icosahedral virus with a diameter approximately 30 nm. The virus particle contains a single-stranded, positive-sense, polyadenylated RNA genome for about 7.4 kb. The genome contains one reading frame translated into a large polyprotein precursor, which is processed into structural protein P1 and nonstructural proteins P2 and P3. P1 can be processed by proteinase to be viral capsid subunit proteins VP0, VP1, and VP3. VP0 can be further cleaved to obtain VP2 and VP4. VP1, VP2, and VP3 are located on the outer part of the capsid while VP4 lies on the inner part. The coding region is flanked by 5′ and 3′ non-coding regions. The 5′ non-coding region is formed by about 740 nucleotides and contains sequences controlling replication and translation, such as the internal ribosome entry site (IRES). The 3′ non-coding region contains a polyA tail that is requisite for virus infectivity.

CA16 VLPs can be typically used for:

Creative Biolabs now offers well-characterized, ready-to-use VLP products to our worldwide clients. In addition to CA16, other VLPs like HBV VLP, HIV VLP, HPV VLP, EV71 VLP, poliovirus VLP are also available. Please feel free to inquire us for a detailed quote.


  1. Mao Q, Wang Y, Yao X, et al. 2014). Coxsackievirus A16: epidemiology, diagnosis, and vaccine. Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics, 10(2), 360-367.
  2. Shi J, Huang X, Liu Q, et al. (2013). Identification of conserved neutralizing linear epitopes within the VP1 protein of coxsackievirus A16.Vaccine, 31(17), 2130-2136.

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