Biomarker and Antibody Development for Rheumatoid Arthritis

With wealthy experience in the in vitro diagnostic (IVD) antibody development, Creative Biolabs is proud to offer global clients a wide range of IVD antibody development, immunoassay development, and IVD kit development services to aid in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

Rheumatoid arthritis.

As a chronic systemic autoimmune inflammatory disease, rheumatoid arthritis is characterized by cartilage and bone damage as well as disability. RA has an incidence of 0.5% to 1%, with an apparent reduction from north to south (in the northern hemisphere) and from urban to rural areas. RA carries a substantial burden for both the individual and society. The individual burden results from musculoskeletal deficits, with attendant decline in physical function, quality of life, and cumulative comorbid risk. The socioeconomic burden, aside from major direct medical costs, is a consequence of functional disability, reduced work capacity, and decreased societal participation.

Multiple genetic and environmental factors have been associated with an increased risk for RA. Of these, the strongest associations have been seen with female sex, a family history of RA, the genetic factor the “shared epitope,” and exposure to tobacco smoke. There is also renewed interest in mucosal inflammation and microbial factors as contributors to the development of RA. However, the identification of a “preclinical” period of RA that can be defined as local or systemic autoimmunity as measured by autoantibodies and other biomarkers prior to the development of clinically apparent synovitis suggests that the risk factors for RA are acting long prior to first clinical evidence of IA.

Pathophysiology of RA

RA is pathologically heterogeneous. The presence of autoantibodies (seropositivity) is associated with more severe symptoms and joint damage, and increased mortality. This is most likely due to the formation of immune complexes by ACPAs with citrullinecontaining antigens and subsequent binding of RF, which can lead to abundant complement activation. The detection of autoimmune responses to citrullinated selfproteins is a major advance. ACPAs can bind citrullinated residues on many self-proteins, including vimentin, α-enolase, fibronectin, fibrinogen, histones, and type II collagen. The tissue in which these immune responses are activated is uncertain, but the lung is an attractive candidate, which is consistent with a role for smoking in rheumatoid arthritis and the presence of shared citrullinated peptides in lung and synovial tissue biopsies (Fig 2).

Pathways to rheumatoid arthritis. Fig 2. Pathways to rheumatoid arthritis.

Diagnosis of RA Diseases

Rheumatoid arthritis has no diagnostic criteria. The typical patient presents with tender and swollen joints of recent onset, morning joint stiffness, and abnormal laboratory tests. 4 new biomarkers improve the diagnosis of early RA in patients who test negative on conventional tests. The panel of biomarkers, including UH-RA 1, UH-RA 9, UH-RA 14, and UH-RA 21, had 85% specificity for RA. These markers were found in 36% of patients with early RA and in 24% of patients who were seronegative for rheumatoid factor and anti-citrullinated protein antibody.

Creative Biolabs has been focusing on the IVD field by providing our clients with high-quality IVD products. With pleasure, we can tailor high-quality IVD antibody services against novel biomarkers for RA diseases. If you are interested in our service, please do not hesitate to contact us for more details.

Potential biomarkers for RA including but not limited to:

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