Biomarkers and Antibodies Development for Breast Cancer

Antibodies have exhibited preeminent potential in not only the treatment but also the diagnosis and prognosis of cancers, such as breast cancer. As one of the leading industries that are specialized in antibodies development, Creative Biolabs is providing incomparable services for the development of high-quality in vitro diagnosis (IVD) antibodies with low cross-reactivity.

Introduction of Breast Cancer

Biomarkers and Antibodies Development for Breast Cancer Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue. Currently, breast cancer is the most common invasive cancer in women as well as the second main cause of cancer death. Usually, the symptoms of breast cancer include a lump in the breast, dimpling of the skin, fluid coming from the nipple, or a red scaly patch of skin. The exact cause remains unclear, but some risk factors make it more likely, such as a history of breast cancer or breast lumps, alcohol consumption, older age, estrogen exposure and breastfeeding. Moreover, inherited factors are involved such as women who carry the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes have a higher risk of developing breast cancer. The management of breast cancer varies under different conditions, depending on the stage of cancer and the age of the patient. In general, it is usually treated with surgery, followed by chemotherapy or radiation therapy, or both. Other treatments include hormone-blocking therapy, monoclonal antibodies, and other immune-modulating treatments.

Diagnosis of Breast Cancer

Initial breast cancer screening is often performed with a mammography, which produces images that can help detect any lumps or abnormalities. Once a patient has a suspicious abnormality on screening mammography, further diagnosis can be conducted such as an ultrasound scan that can help differentiate between a solid mass or a fluid-filled cyst, and a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan that helps to find out how far cancer has spread. Confirmed abnormalities on diagnostic mammography or magnetic resonance imaging should be evaluated with image-guided core needle biopsy. Core biopsy is performed to obtain samples for analysis of histologic and immunohistochemical features of breast cancer.

Histopathological Classification of Breast Cancer

Breast cancer is divided into in situ (ductal and lobular) and invasive disease. They are characterized by many morphological, clinical and molecular features, and thus correct classification provides important prognostic information and can affect treatment response. Traditionally, breast cancer has been classified according to histopathologic criteria, including grade, tumor size, and lymph node involvement, also known as the tumor, node, and metastasis (TNM) staging system. In addition, clinical criteria including immunohistochemical markers [i.e. estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)], are routinely used in diagnostic laboratories to provide a classification of breast cancer and to help determine the optimal approach for treatment. Moreover, there are a number of new biomarkers that have been proposed for routine use in the management of breast cancer patients including ER-β, androgen receptor (AR) and Ki-67. With the development of genomic and transcriptomic technologies, more and more new biomarkers will be identified for breast cancer development and management.

Clinical classification of breast cancer biomarkers using immunohistochemistry (IHC). (a) ER-positive strong intensity (×20). (b) PR-positive moderate intensity (×20). (c) HER-2 overexpression, score 3+. (De. Abreu, 2014)Fig 1. Clinical classification of breast cancer biomarkers using immunohistochemistry (IHC). (a) ER-positive strong intensity (×20). (b) PR-positive moderate intensity (×20). (c) HER-2 overexpression, score 3+. (De. Abreu, 2014)

In clinical, monoclonal antibodies have been applied in several oncologic areas, such as tumor characterization, diagnosis, and prognosis due to their high sensitivity, specificity, and unlimited availability. In particular, Creative Biolabs offers first-class development services of antibodies against different biomarkers to clients globally aiming to improve the diagnosis and classification of different breast cancer subtypes. Moreover, we offer customized solutions to our clients with the purpose of satisfying every specific requirement. Please contact us if you need more information or a formal quote.

The following links provide the biomarkers and related IVD antibodies used for diagnosis of Breast Cancer being provided by Creative Biolabs.


Reference

  1. De. Abreu, F. B., (2014). "Personalized therapy for breast cancer." Clinical Genetics, 86.1:62.


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