Creative Biolabs is an undisputed leading provider of antibody development and generation services. Now, we provide in vitro diagnostic (IVD) antibody development services targeting various biomarkers of different stages of liver diseases, including hepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and liver failure.
Introduction of Liver Cirrhosis
Liver cirrhosis (LC), the end stage of many forms of chronic hepatitis of different etiologies, is a diffuse process characterized by fibrosis and the conversion of normal liver architecture into structurally abnormal nodules surrounded by annular fibrosis. This chronic progressive clinical condition leads to liver cell failure and portal hypertension, which can favor the onset of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The most common causes of cirrhosis include alcohol, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).
Fig.1 Comparison between normal liver and liver cirrhosis.
The Diagnosis of Liver Cirrhosis
Clinically, LC may be divided into two phases: compensated and decompensated. Decompensated LC is easily diagnosed as it presents with a series of clinical and laboratory signs such as ascites, sepsis, variceal bleeding, encephalopathy, and non-obstructive jaundice, while compensated LC may be difficult to differentiate from chronic hepatitis. Consequently, accurate evaluation of the fibrosis stage or of the appearance of overt cirrhosis is fundamental not only to reach a correct diagnosis but also to commence correct treatment or screening protocols to permit an early diagnosis of the frequent and fatal complications of LC, such as esophageal varices, HCC.
The diagnosis approaches of liver cirrhosis mainly include clinical examination, laboratory tests, and ancillary studies. Liver biopsy, which is considered as the reference standard method of fibrosis diagnosis and staging, is usually unnecessary if clinical findings and imaging studies (e.g., evidence of decompensation, with ascites and impaired hepatic biosynthesis) are sufficient for the diagnosis of cirrhosis. In cases of suspected cirrhosis, a transcutaneous liver biopsy is indicated if the clinical findings leave the diagnosis in doubt or if the biopsy is expected to yield information about the cause of cirrhosis that will affect the choice of treatment. However, liver biopsy is of no help in staging cirrhosis.
Fig.2 Risk factors that can directly lead to cirrhosis. (Xie, 2017)
Noninvasive Diagnostic Evaluation of Cirrhosis
Noninvasive methods obviated the need for liver biopsy, including serological tests and imaging instruments, have been developed recently for the diagnostic evaluation of cirrhosis. Serum markers offer a cost-effective alternative to liver biopsy being less invasive and theoretically without complications. They can be classified into direct and indirect markers which may be used alone or in combination to produce composite scores. Diagnostic imaging includes a number of instruments and techniques to estimate liver fibrosis and cirrhosis like ultrasound, elastography techniques, and CT. Currently, it can be affirmed that both serological tests and imaging techniques are quite reliable for diagnosing LC as well as for excluding the presence of fibrosis. In contrast, in the intermediate stages, their reliability is limited.
The continued discovery of novel biomarkers for disease detection and monitoring, as well as the advent of modern antibody techniques, have driven the development of IVD antibodies in the in vitro diagnostic market. With years of experience serving the life science industry, Creative Biolabs provides IVD antibody development services raised against a wide panel of biomarkers for the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis. In addition, our staff scientists and technical team have the knowledge and experience to provide the highest quality services in other areas. Contact us to discuss your specific requirements and experience the great value of our expert services.
Our IVD antibody development services target the following diagnostic markers of liver cirrhosis:
For lab research use only.