Introduction of Renal Parenchymal Injury
The renal parenchymal injury means kidney disease occurs and causes damage to their renal parenchyma. Renal parenchyma and renal pelvis make up a complete kidney, and renal parenchyma is constituted by two parts, renal cortex and renal medulla, which are in charge of regulating internal body balance. There are tens of thousands of nephrons existing in the renal parenchymal area of each kidney. Nephrons are composed of glomeruli-small blood vessels and tubules that filter the blood throughout the body. Renal parenchymal disease refers to the injury that appears in renal parenchyma. Once this damage develops uncontrolled, the kidney would lose its ability to clear the waste away from the blood, causing various symptoms.
Fig1. The structure of kidney.
There are some complications and symptoms of renal parenchymal injury introduced concisely. First, common complications of this malady include anemia, renal osteopathy, edema, proteinuria, hematuria, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension and hyperfunction of parathyroid gland. When it comes to symptoms of renal parenchymal injury, patients will be observed with one or more following items, involving fatigue, itching, muscle cramp, abnormal urine color, swelling, foamy urine, frequent urination at night, Joint pain, hypertension, loss of appetite, and nausea and vomiting.
Cause of Renal Parenchymal Injury
The injury of renal parenchyma contains sicknesses that damage the outermost internal region of the kidney where blood filtration and urine formation occur. In terms of the pathogenesis, the causes are various and must be implicated in one or several primary diseases, such as high blood pressure, diabetes, heart problem, infections, lupus, purpura, etc. Some of them will influence patient's kidney function severely and result in kidney failure eventually, which is known as chronic kidney disease (CKD).
However, the most common causes of renal parenchymal injury are high blood pressure and diabetes, particularly the former one. On the one hand, essential hypertension is an important cause of CKD. On the other hand, this disease is becoming the commonest cause of secondary hypertension, accounting for 2.5-5.0% of all high blood pressure cases. Systemic hypertension associated with renal parenchymal injury occurs as a complication of various glomerular and interstitial renal diseases and may accelerate the decline of kidney's function if inadequately controlled. Besides, medicines, bacteria, virus, kidney stone and so on, are also major reasons for renal parenchymal disease. Meanwhile, the genetic factor is reported being an inducement of this injury, and polycystic kidney disease is the typical example. In addition, autoimmune disorders are taken as a major cause of renal parenchymal injury, involving lupus nephritis, purpura nephritis, IgA nephropathy and so on.
Treatments for Renal Parenchymal Injury
When patients suffered from acute kidney failure, they would have severe conditions timely. But if any effective treatment can proceed in time, patient's condition will be recovered soon. If there is chronic renal disease diagnosed, patient's kidney function may be damaged gradually and no valid cure will be available for this kind of injury in parenchyma. Medicine is useful in treating renal parenchymal injury, and hormone medicines are often used to treat inflammatory reaction in kidney. What's more, medicines like immunosuppressor, glucocorticoid, and cytotoxic drug are considered in the therapy process of this disease as well. Blood purification is another significant means in these treatments, which can help remove wastes and toxins in patient's body. Indeed, dialysis is the most common way to prolong ones' lifetime when patients are in the end stage of kidney disease. In addition, the kidney transplant is another important choice for patients facing with no-functioning kidneys.
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