IVD Antibody Development Services for Apelin Marker

Creative Biolabs is a contract research organization specialized in offering customized services for the development of antibodies for use in diagnostics, drug discovery, and basic research. Especially, we provide the expertise and personnel to offer high-quality in vitro diagnostic (IVD) antibody development services targeting a wide range of high-value diagnostic biomarkers to our clients. Here, we introduce our IVD antibody development services for the apelin marker.

Apelin, a ligand of the G-protein-coupled receptor APJ, is initially derived from bovine stomach extracts by Tatemoto and coworkers. Similar to its receptor, apelin is expressed in a variety of peripheral tissues and different brain regions. The major active forms of apelin are apelin-13, -17, -36, and the pyroglutamate isoform of apelin-13 (Pyr(1)-apelin-13) which has a higher resistance to degradation. Apelin has been proven to be related to the modulation of cardiovascular and fluid homeostasis, cell proliferation, angiogenesis and food intake. It is also formed and secreted by adipocytes and therefore considered as an adipokine. This has provided a novel field of research establishing a link between apelin and metabolic disorders, such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, etc. Some researches have displayed an improvement of plasma apelin concentrations in humans and in animal models with various metabolic pathologies.

IVD Antibodies for Apelin Marker Figure 1. Schematic diagram of metabolic effects of apelin and its major signaling targets. Apelin enables to activate many metabolic functions (green arrows/boxes) and restrain lipolysis, as well as insulin secretion by different signaling pathways. (Bertrand, C. 2015)

Apelin Marker of Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is a developing situation in which the body is resistant to the effects of insulin and/or increasingly loses the ability to generate enough insulin in the pancreas. It is related to modifiable lifestyle risk factors and also has powerful genetic and family related risk factors. Apelin has pleiotropic impacts on a number of organs and tissues, however, several studies have promoted the role of apelin on whole body metabolism. Many researches have shown a protective action of apelin in obesity-associated diseases, a cardio-protective effect and now, apelin is able to be regarded as an insulin-sensitizing agent. Increasing evidence has revealed that apelin is also a crucial modulator on lipid metabolism by decreasing fat mass and improving fuel consumption, which is consistent with an enhancement of insulin sensitivity. These results suggest that apelin has beneficial effects on obesity-associated diseases and may be a potential biomarker of type 2 diabetes.

IVD Antibodies for Apelin Marker Figure 2. Results of apelin treatment on energy metabolism in obese and insulin-resistant mice. Apelin is regarded as a possible biomarker for the diagnosis of diabetes. (Castan-Laurell, I. 2012)

Apelin Marker of Cardiopulmonary Disease

Dyspnea is a main signal of parenchymal lung disease and congestive heart failure. Detection of the B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) has been utilized as biomarker of cardiovascular causes of dyspnea. However, plasma BNP concentration is inefficient in patients with parenchymal lung disease. Recently, a study has indicated that plasma concentrations of apelin-36 are reduced in patients with chronic parenchymal lung disease. Meanwhile, combined determination of apelin-36 and proBNP may be a novel diagnostic approach in differentiating pulmonary from cardiovascular causes of dyspnea.

Antibodies are core elements for antibody-based immunoassays for detecting and quantifying antigens of interest in all kinds of samples such as the serum, urine, tissue preparations, and so on. IVD antibodies are extensively used for disease screening, prognosis, and therapeutic monitoring. With our versatile IVD platform, Creative Biolabs is proud to develop novel anti-apelin antibody from scratch to commercial IVD kit (we can also start with provided antibody candidates). If you are interested in our services, please do not hesitate to contact us for more details.

References

  1. Bertrand, C. (2015). “Apelin and energy metabolism.” Frontiers in physiology, 6.
  2. Castan-Laurell, I. (2012). “Apelin, a promising target for type 2 diabetes treatment?.” Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism 23(5), 234-241.
  3. Goetze, J. P. (2006). “Apelin: a new plasma marker of cardiopulmonary disease.” Regulatory peptides 133(1), 134-138.


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