As a leading CRO of antibody generation and development, Creative Biolabs offers application-specific antibody development services to global clients. With experienced scientists and advanced technology, we have established a series of high-quality in vitro diagnostic (IVD) antibody development services against biomarkers of different diseases. Here, we introduce our IVD antibody development services for GPBB marker.

Glycogen phosphorylase (GP) is a crucial enzyme in the modulation of glycogen metabolism. It functions at the first rate-limiting step of glycogenolysis, catalyzing and converting glycogen into glucose 1-phosphate. Three different isoenzymes of GP have been discovered: GP isoenzyme MM (GPMM) mainly existed in human skeletal muscle, GP isoenzyme LL (GPLL) existed in almost the whole tissues except brain, skeletal muscle and heart, GP isoenzyme BB (GPBB) most expressed by brain and heart. Meanwhile, it is only in the heart muscle where high concentration of GPBB is able to be measured. As ischemia and hypoxia occur in tissue, glycogenolysis is started with the transformation of GP into its more soluble, active, and cytoplasmic form via phosphorylase kinase. On account of the distribution of GPBB in the heart muscle and raised plasma concentration of GP during hypoxia and ischemia, a number of researches have indicated that plasma GPBB is a potential marker of acute coronary syndromes (ACD).

 IVD Antibodies for GPBB Marker Figure 1. The 3D structure of glycogen phosphorylase molecule. GPBB is one of the isoenzymes of glycogen phosphorylase, playing an essential role in the modulation of glycogen metabolism. (Alamy,

GPBB Marker of Myocardial Infarction

Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is the most crippling and deadly disease in many countries, leading to ~15% of all deaths in the United States. An early diagnosis and effective risk stratification are essential for management of patients with dubious ACD, because efficient myocardium salvage is only performed when secularization is built within 6 hours from emergence of the symptoms. Recently, Cubranic et al. proved that GPBB plays an important role in the early diagnosis of ischemic heart disease, with specificity of 0.81 and sensitivity of 0.97 in patients with AMI detected within 3 hours from appearing of the symptoms. In addition, another study found that GPBB is more reliable as a marker for diagnosis of AMI when it is combined with troponin.

GPBB Marker of Preeclampsia

Preeclampsia is a pregnancy complication which leads to kidney damage, high blood pressure, and several other problems. It is an underlying life-threatening situation influenced approximately 5 percent of pregnant women in the United States. Preeclampsia most arises during the last trimester, however, it can occur at any time in the second half of pregnancy. Studies have displayed that notable changes of GPBB concentrations appear in normal pregnancy, pre-eclampsia pregnancies. Besides, GPBB in healthy pregnancy is lower during the pregnancy from the first to the third trimester. It also recognized that GPBB is a promising biomarker in early pregnancy and at the time of disease in the prediction of preeclampsia.

 IVD Antibodies for GPBB Marker Figure 2. Placental expression of GPBB. GPBB expression is discovered in the syncytiotrophoblast and villous cytotrophoblasts. GPBB is regarded as a potential marker for the diagnosis of preeclampsia. (Lee, J. 2012)

IVD Antibody Development Services Targeting GPBB Marker

IVD antibodies have been commonly used in immunodiagnostic kits for the disease diagnosis and prognosis. Creative Biolabs has built a versatile IVD platform to provide custom biomarker-specific IVD antibody development services to global clients. Along with over a decade of rich experience in providing excellent custom services for IVD antibody discovery, our services can totally meet your special requirements.

In addition, Creative Biolabs provides one-stop diagnostic immunoassay development services, including feasibility analysis, assay design, assay protocol establishment, validation, and production. If you are interested in our services, please do not hesitate to contact us for more details.


  1. Lee, J. (2012). “Glycogen phosphorylase isoenzyme BB plasma concentration is elevated in pregnancy and preterm preeclampsia.” Hypertension 59(2), 274-282.
  2. Lippi, G. (2013). “Glycogen phosphorylase isoenzyme BB in the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction: a meta-analysis.” Biochemia medica 23(1), 78-82.

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