IVD Antibodies Development Services for Irisin Marker

Scientific progress has resulted in the discovery of novel disease biomarkers to fulfill the need for a quicker, more specific and more accurate diagnosis. With wealthy experience in antibody development, Creative Biolabs offers our customers a full range of high-quality biomarker-specific in vitro diagnostic (IVD) antibody development services. Particularly, we provide IVD antibody development services against the irisin marker.

Irisin and FNDC5

Irisin is a newly discovered exercise-mediated myokine which regulates energy metabolism by inducing browning of white adipose tissue and thus dissipates chemical energy in the form of heat. Fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5) was the precursor of irisin. FNDC5 is a protein that encoded by the FNDC5 gene located on the p arm (short arm) of chromosome 1. The protein contains a signal peptide, a single fibronectin type III domain and a C-terminal hydrophobic domain that is anchored in the cell membrane. It has been revealed that exercise stimulates PPAR-γ co-activator-1α (PGC-1α), which in turn upregulates its downstream target FNDC5 thereafter the C-terminus is cleaved and the remaining 112 amino acid peptide is referred to as irisin. PGC-1α is a transcriptional co-activator involving in several biological processes that is associated with energy metabolism. It also plays a pivotal role in the regulation of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1) at the transcriptional level, thermogenesis and mitochondrial biogenesis.

Studies have shown that irisin induces the expression of mitochondrial UCP-1 and activates thermogenic function to enhance energy expenditure in the skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue (BAT). Furthermore, it has been indicated that irisin is not only a myokine but also a novel adipokine with a significant autocrine and endocrine function based on some findings like that FNDC5/irisin has a special pattern of secretion, depending on the anatomical location of the adipose tissue. Despite the fact that irisin is found to be released from skeletal muscle following exercise, it has been demonstrated that FNDC5 mRNA and irisin peptide also present in some other tissue such as human adipose tissue, cerebrospinal fluid, and breast milk.

The main findings on irisin in metabolic diseases as derived from human studies. BMD bone mineral density, CVD cardiovascular disease, IR insulin resistance, NAFLD nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, PCOS polycystic ovary syndrome, T1DM type 1 diabetes mellitus, T2DM type 2 diabetes mellitus. (Polyzos, S. A., 2017) Fig. 1 The main findings on irisin in metabolic diseases as derived from human studies. BMD bone mineral density, CVD cardiovascular disease, IR insulin resistance, NAFLD nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, PCOS polycystic ovary syndrome, T1DM type 1 diabetes mellitus, T2DM type 2 diabetes mellitus. (Polyzos, S. A., 2017)

Irisin as a Biomarker for Metabolic Diseases

Irisin has gained great interest as a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of metabolic diseases, at least those known to ameliorate with exercise. A panel of studies concentrate on the association of irisin with metabolic diseases which include obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), lipid metabolism and cardiovascular disease (CVD), polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and metabolic bone diseases. Several studies have found that obese patients get higher circulating irisin levels compared with normal weight controls and anorexic patients, and irisin has a positive correlation with body weight and BMI. It has been reported that irisin, decreased in type 2 diabetes (T2D), is conversely associated with recently diagnosed T2D. In addition, several studies have reported that irisin is associated with increased risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS), cardiometabolic variables (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, triglycerides and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance), and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in humans.

IVD antibodies have been widely used for disease screening and therapeutic monitoring. As a research partner with years of experience in high-quality antibody development and production, Creative Biolabs offers one-stop solutions from antigen design to antibody pair screening. Besides, we also offer diagnostic immunoassay development services, including feasibility analysis, assay design, assay protocol establishment, assay optimization, and kit production. Our services can be tailor-designed to adapt to the specifications of your project. If you are interested in our services, please do not hesitate to contact us for more details.

Reference

  1. Polyzos, S. A., (2017).” Irisin in metabolic diseases.” Endocrine, 1-15.


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