With abundant experience in the IVD (in vitro diagnostic) antibody development, Creative Biolabs is able to provide a full range of IVD antibody and IVD kit development services for disease screening and therapeutic monitoring. Here, we focus on the alpha-fetoprotein marker as a potential marker of testicular cancer and liver failure.

Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)

Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a protein encoded by the AFP gene in humans. The AFP gene is located on the q-arm of chromosome 4. AFP is the main plasma protein produced by yolk sac and fetal liver during fetal development. It is considered to be a fetal analogue of serum albumin. AFP binds with nickel, copper, bilirubin, and fatty acids and exists as the form of monomers, dimers, and trimers. AFP is the most abundant plasma protein found in the human fetus.

Modeled structure of alpha-fetoprotein. Fig.1 Modeled structure of alpha-fetoprotein.

The Functions of Alfa-fetoprotein

  • The transport function for many different ligands such as fatty acids, steroids, dyes, phytoestrogens, bilirubin, retinoids, heavy metals, flavonoids, dioxin and various drugs.
  • The immunosuppressive activity.
  • The important role in the regulation of cell proliferation.
  • The diagnosis function for hepatocellular carcinoma and germ cell tumors.

Alfa-fetoprotein Marker of Testicular Cancer

Testicular cancer is one of the most common cancer types in men age 20-35 years. For the diagnosis of testicular cancer, it is high-efficient to identify and measure the specific tumor markers such as AFP, HCG, and LDH-1. AFP production by gonadal neoplasms has been reported only in tumors containing embryonal elements. And AFP production has not been found in patients with gestational choriocarcinoma or testicular choriocarcinomas in which embryonal elements are not present. Some studies show that high level of serum AFP can be detected in approximately 90% of non-seminoma germ cell tumors and AFP can be a great biomarker for testicular cancer associated with HCG.

As the 5th most common cancer type and 3rd most important cancer mortality in the world, the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is absent as the major diagnosed work focus at the advanced stage. In recent years, it has been reported that serum AFP is one of the most common markers for the diagnosis of HCC. Moreover, the AFP related parameters, such as AFP mRNA and AFP glycoforms, have the great potential to be served as the better marker for the diagnosis and monitoring of HCC. As the measurement of increased AFP concentration in the blood is a high-efficient and easy, AFP is the great biomarker for the diagnosis of HCC.

The schematic diagram of male reproductive system and testicular cancer. Fig.2 The schematic diagram of male reproductive system and testicular cancer.

Alpha-fetoprotein Marker of Liver Failure

Serum alpha-fetoprotein is a commonly used marker in the screening for hepatocellular carcinoma. Serum concentrations of alpha-fetoprotein AFP, variably elevated during liver injury, have been suggested to be of prognostic importance in acute liver failure (ALF), higher values being associated with improved outcome. In adult life, increased serum concentrations of AFP are seen in many patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, with modest increases observed in some patients with chronic hepatitis. High serum AFP levels are more frequently detected in older patients and in those with severe fibrosis and cirrhosis.

Following liver injury, an increased AFP level seems to be associated with hepatic regeneration, possibly because immature “hepatoblasts” have features resembling those of fetal hepatocytes. Increased AFP levels are significantly associated with markers of hepatic cytolysis and cholestasis, but not with HCV viral load. A predictive model based on AFP level and routinely monitored biochemical markers of liver fibrosis and necro-inflammatory activity can be a useful clinical tool in chronic HCV infection.

IVD Antibody Development Services Targeting Alpha-fetoprotein Marker

IVD antibodies are essential elements used in immunodiagnostic kits for disease screening and therapeutic monitoring. With our versatile IVD platform, Creative Biolabs is proud to develop novel alpha-fetoprotein-specific antibody from scratch to commercial IVD kit (we can also start with provided antibody candidates).

Creative Biolabs has focused on IVD antibody discovery and development to provide high-affinity IVD antibodies against varies of markers. We are confident in offering the best quality services and products to our global clients. If you are interested in our services, please contact us for more details.

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