As a preeminent contract antibody development company, Creative Biolabs offers high-quality in vitro diagnostic (IVD) antibody development services targeting a wide range of biomarkers. Here, we focus on the IVD antibody development for cortisol marker. We are committed to providing the highest quality of custom services and products at the most reasonable prices.
Cortisol is a steroid hormone. It is in the glucocorticoid class of hormones, which is known as hydrocortisone when used as a medication. Cortisol is produced in humans by the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex within the adrenal gland and released in response to stress and low blood-glucose concentration. It functions to increase blood sugar through gluconeogenesis, to suppress the immune system, and to aid in the metabolism of fat, protein, and carbohydrates. It also decreases bone formation.
Fig.1 (a) Chemical structure of cortisol. (b) Ball-and-stick model of the cortisol (hydrocortisone) molecule.
Metabolic Response Induced by Cortisol
In the early fasting state, cortisol can stimulate gluconeogenesis and activate anti-inflammatory and anti-stress pathways. Cortisol can also play an important, but indirect, role in muscle and liver glycogenolysis, which break down the glycogen into glucose and glucose-1-phosphate. This can be done through its passive influence on glucagon. Additionally, cortisol can facilitate the activation of glycogen phosphorylase, which is indispensable for epinephrine to have an effect on glycogenolysis. In the late fasting state, the function of cortisol changes slightly and increases the level of glycogenesis. This response allows the liver to take up glucose that not being used by the peripheral tissue and turn it into liver glycogen stores and wait to be used if the body turns into the starvation state. Increased levels of cortisol can lead to muscle and proteolysis wasting. Besides, cortisol can have a lipolytic effect under some conditions.
Immune Response Induced by Cortisol
Cortisol can prevent the release of substances in the body, which cause inflammation. It is used to treat conditions as a consequence of overactivity of the B-cell-mediated response. It blocks generation of interleukin (IL)-12, interferon (IFN)-alpha, IFN-gamma, and tumor-necrosis-factor (TNF)-alpha by antigen- T helper (Th)1 cells and presenting cells (APCs) but upregulates the level of IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13 by Th2 cells. This results in a shift to a Th2 immune response rather than immunosuppression. The regulation of the stress system during an infection is thought to be a protective mechanism, which prevents an over-activation of the inflammatory system. Besides, cortisol can weaken the activities of the immune system. It prevents proliferation of T-cells and the T-cell growth factor. Cortisol stimulates many copper enzymes, in order to increase copper availability for immune responses.
Fig.2 Cortisol-the stress hormone.
Cortisol Marker of Liver Cirrhosis
Increasing evidence supports the role of cortisol as a biomarker of liver disease. An impairment of adrenal function is a newly defined complication of liver cirrhosis. The term hepato-adrenal syndrome was introduced to define the presence of adrenal insufficiency in patients with the advanced liver disease with or without sepsis. The prevalence of adrenal insufficiency is strictly related to disease severity in term of Child-Pugh and model for end-stage liver disease scores. The diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency in cirrhosis constitutes a crucial point. Published studies have used a variety of biochemical criteria to define abnormalities in adrenal function during liver cirrhosis.
Common methods used in the general population to assess adrenal insufficiency could be invalid in cirrhotic patients because there are a number of confounding factors that make interpretation difficult. The common methods for assessing adrenal function, based on total cortisol, may lead to overestimation of adrenal insufficiency in patients with cirrhosis. The optimal method could be the direct evaluation of free cortisol, but its measurement is difficult in daily clinical practice. The determination of serum free cortisol provides not only the best estimation of adrenal function but has also a prognostic value. Salivary cortisol is a good surrogate marker of free cortisol, but its assay needs to be standardized. Cortisol response in cirrhotic patients is an independent prognostic factor. In septic patients, in variceal bleeding, and also in noncritically cirrhotic patients, adrenal insufficiency is related to a worse prognosis.
IVD Antibody Development Services Targeting Cortisol Marker
IVD antibodies have been widely used for disease screening and therapeutic monitoring. As a research partner with years of experience in high-quality antibody development and production, Creative Biolabs offers one-stop solutions from antigen design to antibody pair screening. Besides, we also offer diagnostic immunoassay development services, including feasibility analysis, assay design, assay protocol establishment, assay optimization, and kit production.
Our services can be tailor-designed to adapt to specific project specifications. If you are interested in our IVD antibodies discovery services, please contact us for more details.
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