Based on the extensive experience and advanced technology platforms in antibody development, Creative Biolabs is able to offer a full range of biomarker-specific in vitro diagnostic (IVD) antibody development services. Here, we focus on the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as a marker of testicular cancer and kidney disease.

Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH)

Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) encodes the protein catalyzes the conversion of L-lactate and NAD to pyruvate and NADH in the final step of anaerobic glycolysis. The protein is found in nearly all living cells, predominantly in muscle tissue. That’s why LDH can be a marker of common injuries and disease such as heart failure. LDH catalyzes the conversion of lactate to pyruvic acid and back, as it converts NAD+ to NADH and back. LDH exists in four distinct enzyme classes.

In general, LDH can be composed of four subunits. LDH-A and LDH-B proteins are two common subunits encoded by the gene of LDHA and LDHB. Based on these two subunits, there are five possible tetramers LDH-1, LDH-2, LDH-3, LDH-4, and LDH-5 which show different tissue distribution and play various roles. Among them, LDH-1 just present in testicular and ovarian germ cell tumors so that have great potential to be a marker for testicular cancer. In human, the expression of LDH in body tissues is extensive, such as heart muscle and blood cells. As it can release during tissue damage, LDH can also be served as the biomarker for heart failure.

LDH activity. Fig.1 LDH activity.

LDH Marker of Kidney Disease

Among many complications of sickle cell disease, renal failure is the main contributor to early mortality. Many biomarkers have been studied to detect early renal involvement, including estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), microalbuminuria and proteinuria. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) has been studied as a biomarker of renal insufficiency in patients with sickle cell disease. Scientists found that the concentration of a special LDH subunit named M-subunit was higher in the cortex compared with the papilla in healthy kidneys. Moreover, they found that LDH is high, with an inconclusive isoenzyme pattern in patients with chronic renal failure or renal trauma. However, in acute oliguric glomerulonephritis, serum LDH was moderately elevated in contrast to a very high elevation in acute renal failure of widely different pathogenesis.

LDH is localized in vesicles. Fig.2 LDH is localized in vesicles.

Lactate Dehydrogenase Marker of Testicular Cancer

Testicular cancer is the most common malignancy for men age 20 to 35 years. Testicular germ tumors have two main histologies which are seminoma and nonseminomatous. In general, testicular cancer can be divided into three stages: stage I is the primary tumor without metastases; stage II develops to metastases in regional lymph node; stage III refers to a wide range of metastases. In recent research, AFP, hCG, and LDH are the important markers for the diagnosis of testicular cancer.

The serum markers for testicular cancer are always important to define the stage, predict the prognosis, monitor the treatment, detect the relapse, and even predict the survival. Studies have shown that compared with LDH, serum LDH-1 catalytic concentration shows advantages to be a marker even its measurement is a little complicated. Testicular germ cell tumors have the characteristic LDH isoenzyme pattern with a rise of anodal LDH isoenzymes which means that a high number of LDH-B present in tumors and a higher LDH-1/LDH fraction can be detected in the serum from patients with a metastatic testicular cancer than normal testicular tissue. In this case, LDH-1 is the great marker for the diagnosis of testicular cancer.

The diagram of testicular cancer. Fig.3 The diagram of testicular cancer.

IVD Antibody Development Service Targeting LDH Marker

IVD antibodies are extensively used in immunodiagnostic tools for disease screening and therapeutic monitoring. Through our role as a leading antibody service provider, Creative Biolabs is well-positioned to develop high-quality LDH-specific antibodies. Besides antibody generation, Creative Biolabs also offers diagnostic immunoassay development services, including feasibility analysis, assay design, assay protocol establishment, assay optimization, and kit production.

Creative Biolabs has successfully completed a number of IVD antibody generation and development projects for clients across the globe. If you are interested in our IVD antibody discovery services, please contact us for more details.

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