Creative Biolabs is one of the leading custom antibody generation and development providers. We specialize in the generation of antibodies against a wide range of targets for R&D, diagnostic, and therapeutic applications. Currently, we have launched a series of in vitro diagnostic (IVD) antibody development services targeting numerous diagnostic biomarkers of human diseases. Here, we focus on the neuron-specific enolase (NSE) marker.

Neuron-Specific Enolase (NSE)

Neuron specific enolase (NSE), also known as Gamma-enolase or enolase 2 (ENO2), is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ENO2 gene. It is a phosphopyruvate hydratase. NSE is one of the three enolase isoenzymes found in mammals. This isoenzyme, a homodimer, is found in mature neurons and cells of neuronal origin. A switch from alpha enolase to gamma enolase occurs in neural tissue during development in rats and primates.

NSE may play a dual role in promoting both neuroinflammation and neuroprotection in SCI and other neurodegenerative events. Elevated NSE can promote ECM degradation, inflammatory glial cell proliferation, and actin remodeling, thereby affecting migration of activated macrophages and microglia to the injury site and promoting neuronal cell death. Thus, NSE could be a reliable, quantitative, and specific marker of neuronal injury. Depending on the injury, disease, and microenvironment, NSE may also show neurotrophic function as it controls neuronal survival, differentiation, and neurite regeneration via activation of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways.

Structure of the ESE protein Fig.1 Structure of the ESE protein.

NSE Marker of Sepsis Infections

NSE is one of the more promising peripheral blood markers of neuronal injury. It is a cytosolic enzyme nearly exclusive to neurons and neuroendocrine cells and is expressed in high levels in the brain. Thus, plasma NSE is a valid and simple experimental biomarker that allows for quantification of the degree of neuronal injury in a non-invasive approach. NSE has proven useful for determining brain injury severity and aiding early prognosis following traumatic brain injury and cardiac arrest. Higher plasma NSE concentrations are associated with mortality and delirium in critically ill septic patients, suggesting NSE may have utility as a marker of neuronal injury in sepsis. And NSE also has diagnostic and prognostic potential for inflammation and neuronal damage.

IVD Antibody Development Services for NSE Marker

NSE as a Novel Biomarker of Lung Cancer

The level of NSE in the sera of patients with SCLC is increased. Elevated NSE suggests a potential in patients with SCLC. NSE is suggested to be a useful marker in monitoring the response to therapy and the detection of early recurrences. NSE is detected with 40 to 70% diagnostic specificity of NSE in limited SCLC. It is reported that NSE is higher in NSCLC patients than normal but less than values encountered in SCLC. The cytosolic concentrations of NSE are detected to be significantly higher in NSCLC than in healthy pulmonary tissue correlating with tumor stage. Additionally, NSCLC patients with a high NSE level have a low survival rate and a high risk for recurrence after curative surgery. All evidence indicated that NSE is a novel biomarker for lung cancer diagnosis.

NSE Marker of Neurological Injury

Neurological injury includes cerebral trauma, cerebrovascular sclerosis (cerebral hemorrhage and cerebral thrombosis) sequelae, encephalitis and meningitis sequelae, demyelinating diseases, and other cerebrovascular sequelae. NSE has been a new parameter to represent the CNS injury after head trauma. It has been reported that the serum NSE concentration relates to the degree of tissue damage and also the prognosis for the patients. NSE can be more sensitive to indicate the CNS injury and high-risk groups which can benefit from posttraumatic rehabilitation. Thus, NSE is a good marker for the neurological injury.

NSE test in blood samples after cardiac arrest. Fig. 2 NSE test in blood samples after cardiac arrest. (Stammet. 2015)

NSE Marker of Cardiac Arrest

Cardiac arrest is a sudden loss of blood flow resulting from the failure of the heart to effectively pump which can lead to death in short minutes. In general, the symptoms include breath abnormal or absent and loss of consciousness. In recent years, it has been reported that high level of NSE values can be detected in nonsurvivor patients after cardiac arrest to predict the poor outcome. Moreover, it has been confirmed in another study that the decrease of NSE values between 24 and 48 h in cardiac arrest patients can be associated with the good outcome.

IVD Antibody Development Services for NSE Marker

Antibodies are core elements for antibody-based immunoassays for detecting and quantifying antigens of interest in different samples such as the serum, urine, tissue preparations, and so on. At Creative Biolabs, we offer a full range of antibody development, antigen & antibody conjugation, and IVD kit development services to clients across the globe. We develop antibodies that can be applied for different immunoassay formats, including ELISAs, lateral flow immunochromatographic assays, western blot, and flow cytometry.

Creative Biolabs has extensive experience and mature technology platforms in generating and developing IVD antibodies. If you are interested in our IVD antibodies discovery services, please contact us for more details.

Reference

  1. Stammet, P., (2015). “Neuron-Specific Enolase as a Predictor of Death or Poor Neurological Outcome After Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest and Targeted Temperature Management at 33°C and 36°C.” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 65(19), 2104-2114.

For lab research use only.



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