Pharmacokinetics (PK) models are generated to elucidate the transformations that a drug undergoes in an organism and the rules that determine this fate. Creative Biolabs develops a number of functional models to simplify the study of pharmacokinetics. PK model building is based on a number of related compartments (e.g. AUC).

Pharmacokinetics model is the central piece of model-based drug development. It is performed by noncompartmental or compartmental methods. Noncompartmental model is often estimated by AUC and other parameters, like Cmax, Cmin, and Tmax. The closer time points are, the more accurate noncompartmental model reflects the actual shape of the concentration-time curve. Compartmental model is based on linear or nonlinear differential equations. The model relies on the kinetic model to describe and predict the concentration-time curve.

Creative Biolabs provides both noncompartmental and compartmental methods for PK model building. We also offer you service to transform published non-compartment model PK parameters into compartment model PK parameters.

Non-compartmental Modeling

Non-compartmental model thinks of an organism as only one homogenous compartment. It presumes that a drug's blood-plasma concentration is a true reflection of the concentration in other tissues and that the elimination of the drug is directly proportional to the drug's concentration in the organism. Non-compartmental methods are often more versatile, and it is acceptable for bioequivalence studies.

Creative Biolabs provides non-compartmental modeling analysis to calculate PK parameters. For instance, the area under the concentration (AUC) is calculated by the trapezoidal rule; clearance (CL) is calculated from drug dose and AUC; Cmax and Tmax are calculated from concentrations and time points; half-life is usually calculated from the last two to four sampling time-points directly. The closer time points are, the more accurate noncompartmental model reflects the actual shape of the concentration-time curve.

Compartmental Modeling

Compartmental modeling of pharmacokinetics describes the fate of a drug in the body by dividing the whole body into one or more compartments (Figure 1). A compartment involves several organs or tissues and is kinetically homogenous. Different compartments do not have a direct anatomical or physiological signification. In compartmental methods, drug concentration changes over time are estimated using kinetic models.

Pharmacokinetics Models Figure 1 Physiologic-based PK model.

Creative Biolabs provides three types of compartmental models according to your need.

  • Single-compartment model: The single-compartment model considers all of the organs and tissues to be one giant bucket: central compartment. The drug enters the central compartment from somewhere outside of the body and then leaves the central compartment. In this process, drug recirculation does not occur.
  • Two-compartment model: In the two-compartment model, all the organs and tissues are divided into two compartments: central compartment and peripheral compartment. The plasma concentration of the drug appears to decay in a manner described by multiple exponential phases.
  • Three-compartmental model: Three compartments are described: the central compartment (represents the plasma); the highly perfused compartment (represents the organs and tissues highly perfused by the blood); and the scarcely perfused compartment (represents the organs and tissues scarcely perfused by blood).

Creative Biolabs provides different ways to predict pharmacokinetic models of a drug. This allows a better prior adaptation of the dosage regimen of a drug in a particular situation.

For more detailed information, please feel free to contact us or directly sent us an inquiry.

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