As a leading company in the field of the drug industry, Creative Biolabs has gained a wealth of good reputation for successfully completed numerous challenges in antifungal drug discovery. Based on our advanced technology platform and experienced scientists, we are able to offer a series of antifungal drug discovery services against tinea unguium.

What is Tinea Unguium?

Tinea Unguium, also known as Onychomycosis, is a fungal infection of the nail. Usually, tinea unguium occurs about 10 percent in the adult population. The causative pathogens of tinea unguium distribute widely in the fungus kingdom, which including dermatophytes, Candida (Yeast), and non-dermatophytic molds. Among them, dermatophytes are mainly responsible for tinea unguium in the temperate western countries, while Candida and non-dermatophytic molds are more frequently involved in the areas with a hot and humid climate.

Species of Dermatophytes Involved in Tinea Unguium Include:

  • Trichophyton rubrum
  • Epidermophyton floccosum
  • Trichophyton interdigitale
  • Trichophyton violaceum
  • Microsporum gypseum
  • Trichophyton tonsurans
  • Trichophyton soudanense
  • Candida and non-dermatophytic fungus mainly involve to the mold genus Scytalidium, Scopulariopsis, and Aspergillus.

Risks of Tinea Unguium Infection

  • Age and sex: elder people and males;
  • Environment: humid and moist climate or environment;
  • Physical factors: infection history, immunocompromised person, and patients with peripheral vascular disease.

Types of fungal infection.Fig.1 Types of fungal infection.

Symptoms and Signs

Typical symptoms of tinea unguium are white or yellow nail discoloration, thickening of the nail, and separation of the nail from the nail bed. It can be divided into four types of tinea unguium:

  • Distal subungual onychomycosis: distal subungual onychomycosis is the most common form of tinea unguium, which caused by Trichophyton rubrum at the nail bed or underside of the nail plate.
  • White superficial onychomycosis: white superficial onychomycosis is caused by more than a fungus invasion at the superficial layers of the nail plate.
  • Proximal subungual onychomycosis: proximal subungual onychomycosis is more often in an immunocompromised patient, which caused by fungal penetration of the newly formed nail plate through the proximal nail fold.
  • Candidal onychomycosis: caused by Candida species, candidal onychomycosis is an invasion of the fingernails whose hands frequently immerse in water.

Diagnosis and Treatment

The basic diagnosis based on the appearance and laboratory testing for confirmation is necessary. There are four major clinical presentations of tinea unguium due to the division: distal subungual, proximal subungual, superficial, and total dystrophic. So, according to different presentations, four therapies can be chosen, which including nail avulsion and debridement, topical treatments, oral systemic treatments, and laser therapy. Recurrence is common after effective treatment.

Most treatments are topical or oral antifungal medications.

  • Drugs for topical treatment: ciclopirox nail paint, amorolfine, and efinaconazole;
  • Drugs for oral treatment: terbinafine, itraconazole, and fluconazole.

Types of Dermatophytosis Studied by Creative Biolabs

As a part of our antifungal drug research, Creative Biolabs has abundant and professional experience in dermatophytosis research. Our professional scientists will work closely with our customer and provide you with high-quality, flexible, and cost-effective services. Besides tinea unguium, other types of dermatophytosis are also within our scope of service.

If you are interested in the fungal diseases we investigate, please click the links above. For more detailed information, just feel free to contact us.

For lab research use only.

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