Introduction of FSHR
FSHR, also known as follitropin receptor, FSH-R, LGR1, FSHR1, FSHRO or ODG1, is a 78.2 kDa protein with seven membrane-spanning domains (or transmembrane helices) that belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family. It is composed of 695 amino acids and is encoded by the gene of chromosome 2p16.3. The FSHR gene is 192 kb in size and consists of ten exons and nine introns. Most of extracellular domains are coded by nine exons, ranging in length from 69 to 251 bp, while the C-terminal part of the extracellular domain, transmembrane domain, and intracellular domain are coded by the large exon of 1234 bp. The structure of the human FSHR shows prominent similarity to that of the previously featured rat FSHR gene, with a high extent of conservation in exon sizes and exon/intron junctions.
|Basic Information of FSHR|
|Protein Name||Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor|
|Aliases||LGR1, ODG1, FSHR1, FSHRO, FSH Receptor, Follitropin Receptor|
|Organism||Homo sapiens (Human)|
Function of FSHR Membrane Protein
FSHR is a receptor for follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and plays a role in gonad development. FSH and LH are regulated by the gonadotropin-releasing hormone and in turn under the regulation of gonadal functions in males and females through activating their cognate receptors. FSHR along with other glycoprotein hormone receptors make up a subgroup of G-protein-coupled receptors. FSH binds to its receptors expressed on the surface of granulosa cells in the ovary and Sertoli cells in the testis to lead to folliculogenesis and spermatogenesis, respectively. FSH is crucial for normal reproductive function and brings about its physiological actions by activating a specific receptor of target cells. The role of FSHR is essential for the estradiol production and follicular development in females, as well as for the regulation of Sertoli cell action and spermatogenesis in males. Some studies show that mutations of this gene will cause ovarian dysgenesis type 1 and also ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.
Fig.1 Protein structure of FSHR.
Application of FSHR Membrane Protein in Literature
It is known that in the ovary, the function of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is mediated by the FSH receptor (FSHR). FSHR is found in many non-ovarian tissues, but it is not clear if chondrocytes express FSHR. This study determines that human articular cartilage and mouse chondrocytes can express functional FSHR.
The findings of this review derive from the combination of in vivo and genetic methods conclusively displayed that signaling through endothelial FSHR does indeed is able to stimulate angiogenesis and the placental Fshr is crucial for the normal angiogenesis of fetal placental vasculatures.
Authors investigate the influence of FSHR Ala307Thr and Asn680Ser polymorphisms in the risk of endometriosis cases. The results suggest that 680Ser-Ser/GG genotype and "GG/307Ala680Ser" haplotype elevate the risk of fertile women endometriosis, whereas "GA/307Ala680Asn" type can decrease the risk of endometriosis development.
The article discovers that a high dose of FRBI (30-40 mg/kg) can suppress follicular and ovarian development, and attenuate the expression of ERβ and FSHR mRNAs and proteins in the ovary. Taken together, FRBI may be used to suppress the carcinogenesis of ovarian cancer by downregulating the overexpression of FSHR and ERβ in the ovary.
The paper finds that RAB5A negatively regulates the aromatase expression and estradiol synthesis in human granulosa cells in correlation with changes in FSHR levels by the cAMP/PKA/CREB pathway. Conclusively, RAB5A gene is expressed abnormally in luteinized granulosa cells of polycystic ovary syndrome patients, which possibly helps to explain the high FSHR level in this disease.
FSHR Preparation Options
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