GALR3 Membrane Protein Introduction

Introduction of GALR3
The GalR3 receptor was first cloned in rats and contained 370 amino acid residues. The human GalR3 receptor contains 368 amino acid residues, and its gene also has an intron at the same position as the GalR2 receptor gene, suggesting that the GalR2 and GalR3 receptors may have the same evolutionary origin. It shares higher homology with the human GalR2 receptor (about 58%) than human GalR1 receptor (about 38%). Human GalR3 receptor has about 90% homology with rat and is equally conserved N-terminal glycosylation sites and several phosphorylation sites, including a C-terminal PKC phosphorylation site not found in the GalR1 and GalR2 receptors.

Basic Information of GALR3
Protein Name Galanin receptor type 3
Gene Name GALR3
Aliases Galanin receptor 3
Organism Homo sapiens (Human)
UniProt ID O60755
Transmembrane Times 7
Length (aa) 368

Function of GALR3 Membrane Protein

The functional coupling of the GalR3 receptor is similar to that of the GalR1 receptor. Galanin acts on the GalR3 receptor to activate its co-expressed inward rectifier potassium channel. GalR3 receptors regulate physiological processes such as mood, feeding, pain transmission, metabolism, and release of pituitary hormones. GalR3 receptors may also be involved in the regulation of insulin release and sugar homeostasis. RNA blot analysis showed high levels of GalR3 receptors in the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, striatum, medulla oblongata, cerebellum, and spinal cord. However, low levels in the hippocampus, amygdala, and thalamus.

Representative microphotographs of the joint samples taken on the 14 th day of arthritis. Fig.1 Representative microphotographs of the joint samples taken on the 14 th day of arthritis. (Balint, 2015)

Application of GALR3 Membrane Protein in Literature

  1. Khan D., et al. GalR3 mediates galanin proliferative effects on postnatal hippocampal precursors. Neuropeptides. 2017, 63: 14-17. PubMed ID: 28431685

    This article reports that GalR3 but not GalR2 is a specific receptor subtype that mediates the proliferative effect of galanin on hippocampal progenitor cells. GALR3 is involved in the mediation of galanin neurogenesis and may be a neurogenic antidepressant effect.

  2. Robinson J., et al. Development of a high-throughput screening-compatible cell-based functional assay to identify small molecule probes of the galanin 3 receptor (GalR3). Assay Drug Dev Technol. 2013, 11(8): 468-77. PubMed ID: 24116939

    This article reveals that the modified GalR3 promotes its cell surface expression while maintaining wild-type receptor pharmacology. Modified GalR3 has been used to develop high throughput screening compatible cell-based cAMP biosensor assays to detect selective small molecule modulators of GalR3.

  3. Mansouri S., et al. GalR3 activation promotes adult neural stem cell survival in response to a diabetic milieu. J Neurochem. 2013, 127(2): 209-20. PubMed ID: 23927369

    The article reports how galanin and its receptors are regulated by diabetes in vitro and in vivo. In addition, GalR3-mediated neuroprotection supports the development of potential future therapies based on GalR3 activation for the treatment of brain disorders.

  4. Belfer I., et al. Alcoholism is associated with GALR3 but not two other galanin receptor genes. Genes Brain Behav. 2007, 6(5): 473-81. PubMed ID: 17083333

    This article shows that the combination of the GALR3 and GAL risk double models resulted in an OR increase in alcoholism. GALR1 or GALR2 has no effect on the risk of alcoholism. This evidence suggests that GALR3 mediates the alcohol-related effects of galanin.

  5. Lu X., et al. Galanin (2-11) binds to GalR3 in transfected cell lines: limitations for pharmacological definition of receptor subtypes. Neuropeptides. 2015, 39(3): 165-7. PubMed ID: 15944007

    This article evaluates that the galanin and the rat GalR3 receptor in the transfected cell line bind with similar affinity to GalR2 binding.

GALR3 Preparation Options

To obtain the soluble and functional target protein, the versatile Magic™ membrane protein production platform in Creative Biolabs enables many flexible options, from which you can always find a better match for your particular project. Aided by our versatile Magic™ anti-membrane protein antibody discovery platform, we also provide customized anti-GALR3 antibody development services.

As a forward-looking research institute as well as a leading customer service provider in the field of membrane protein, Creative Biolabs has won good reputation among our worldwide customers for successfully accomplishing numerous challenging projects including generation of many functional membrane proteins. Please feel free to contact us for more information.


  1. Balint Botz. (2015). The role of sensory neuropeptides in mouse models of neuropathy and immune arthritis.

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