Introduction of GJA1
Gap junction alpha-1 protein (GJA1), also named as connexin-43 (Cx43), is a protein which is encoded by the GJA1 gene on chromosome 6. It is a 43.0 kDa protein that consists of 382 amino acids. The structure of GJA1 contains a long C-terminal tail, an N-terminal domain, and various transmembrane domains. The C-terminal tail is comprised of 50 amino acids and includes post-translational modification sites, as well as binding sites for transcription factors, cytoskeleton elements, and other proteins. As a consequence, the C-terminal tail is central to functions such as regulating pH gating and channel.
|Basic Information of GJA1|
|Protein Name||Gap junction alpha-1 protein|
|Aliases||Connexin-43, Gap junction heart protein|
|Organism||Homo sapiens (Human)|
Function of GJA1 Membrane Protein
As a connexin, GJA1 is a component of gap junctions that allow intercellular gap junctions (GJIC) to regulate cell death, proliferation, and differentiation. GJA1 has been found to play a role in many biological processes, such as muscle contraction, embryonic development, inflammation, and spermatogenesis, as well as diseases, including oculodentodigital dysplasia, cardiac malformations and cancer. GJA1 is detectable in most cell types. It is the main protein of the heart gap junction and is said to play a vital role in the simultaneous contraction of the heart. Although GJA1 plays a key role in the heart and other vital organs, its half-life is very short (only 2 to 4 hours), suggesting that this protein undergoes daily turnover in the heart and may be highly abundant or compensated with other connexins. In addition, GJA1 is present in many immune cells, such as eosinophils and T cells, and its gap junction function promotes the maturation and activation of these cells, thereby promoting the cross-exchange necessary for the production of inflammatory responses.
Fig.1 The structure of GJA1.
Application of GJA1 Membrane Protein in Literature
These findings reveal alterations in translation initiation as an unexplored mechanism by which the cell regulates GJA1 gap junction formation during EMT.
These data imply that, at least in bone, GJA1 gap junctions not only exchange signals, but also recruit the appropriate effector molecules to the GJA1 CT in order to efficiently activate signaling cascades that affect cell function and bone acquisition.
This article suggests that better survival was associated with a high expression of GJA1 in unstratified and luminal tumors but with a low expression in Her2e subtype.
The study indicated that miR-19b and miR-1 might be critically involved in cardiac arrhythmia associated with VMC.
This article suggests that the GJA1-gene has no connection with the development of TOF.
GJA1 Preparation Options
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