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GJA1 Membrane Protein Introduction

Introduction of GJA1

Gap junction alpha-1 protein (GJA1), also named as connexin-43 (Cx43), is a protein which is encoded by the GJA1 gene on chromosome 6. It is a 43.0 kDa protein that consists of 382 amino acids. The structure of GJA1 contains a long C-terminal tail, an N-terminal domain, and various transmembrane domains. The C-terminal tail is comprised of 50 amino acids and includes post-translational modification sites, as well as binding sites for transcription factors, cytoskeleton elements, and other proteins. As a consequence, the C-terminal tail is central to functions such as regulating pH gating and channel.

Basic Information of GJA1
Protein Name Gap junction alpha-1 protein
Gene Name GJA1
Aliases Connexin-43, Gap junction heart protein
Organism Homo sapiens (Human)
UniProt ID P17302
Transmembrane Times 4
Length (aa) 382
Sequence MGDWSALGKLLDKVQAYSTAGGKVWLSVLFIFRILLLGTAVESAWGDEQSAFRCNTQQPGCENVCYDKSFPISHVRFWVLQIIFVSVPTLLYLAHVFYVMRKEEKLNKKEEELKVAQTDGVNVDMHLKQIEIKKFKYGIEEHGKVKMRGGLLRTYIISILFKSIFEVAFLLIQWYIYGFSLSAVYTCKRDPCPHQVDCFLSRPTEKTIFIIFMLVVSLVSLALNIIELFYVFFKGVKDRVKGKSDPYHATSGALSPAKDCGSQKYAYFNGCSSPTAPLSPMSPPGYKLVTGDRNNSSCRNYNKQASEQNWANYSAEQNRMGQAGSTISNSHAQPFDFPDDNQNSKKLAAGHELQPLAIVDQRPSSRASSRASSRPRPDDLEI

Function of GJA1 Membrane Protein

As a connexin, GJA1 is a component of gap junctions that allow intercellular gap junctions (GJIC) to regulate cell death, proliferation, and differentiation. GJA1 has been found to play a role in many biological processes, such as muscle contraction, embryonic development, inflammation, and spermatogenesis, as well as diseases, including oculodentodigital dysplasia, cardiac malformations and cancer. GJA1 is detectable in most cell types. It is the main protein of the heart gap junction and is said to play a vital role in the simultaneous contraction of the heart. Although GJA1 plays a key role in the heart and other vital organs, its half-life is very short (only 2 to 4 hours), suggesting that this protein undergoes daily turnover in the heart and may be highly abundant or compensated with other connexins. In addition, GJA1 is present in many immune cells, such as eosinophils and T cells, and its gap junction function promotes the maturation and activation of these cells, thereby promoting the cross-exchange necessary for the production of inflammatory responses.

Fig.1 The structure of GJA1.

Application of GJA1 Membrane Protein in Literature

  1. James C.C., et al. Altered Translation Initiation of Gja1 Limits Gap Junction Formation during Epithelial–mesenchymal Transition. Molecular Biology of the Cell. 2018, 29 (7): 797–808. PubMed ID: 29467255

    These findings reveal alterations in translation initiation as an unexplored mechanism by which the cell regulates GJA1 gap junction formation during EMT.

  2. Moorer M. C., et al. Defective Signaling, Osteoblastogenesis and Bone Remodeling in a Mouse Model of Connexin 43 C-Terminal Truncation. Journal of Cell Science. 2017, 130(3): 531–540. PubMed ID: 28049723

    These data imply that, at least in bone, GJA1 gap junctions not only exchange signals, but also recruit the appropriate effector molecules to the GJA1 CT in order to efficiently activate signaling cascades that affect cell function and bone acquisition.

  3. Busby M., et al. The Complex Subtype-Dependent Role of Connexin 43 (GJA1) in Breast Cancer. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2018,19 (3): 693. PubMed ID: 29495625

    This article suggests that better survival was associated with a high expression of GJA1 in unstratified and luminal tumors but with a low expression in Her2e subtype.

  4. Lin J., et al. MicroRNA-19b Downregulates Gap Junction Protein Alpha1 and Synergizes with MicroRNA-1 in Viral Myocarditis. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2016, 17(5): 741. PubMed ID: 27213338

    The study indicated that miR-19b and miR-1 might be critically involved in cardiac arrhythmia associated with VMC.

  5. Salameh A., et al. On the Role of the Gap Junction Protein Cx43 (GJA1) in Human Cardiac Malformations with Fallot-Pathology. A Study on Paediatric Cardiac Specimen. PLoS ONE. 2014, 9(4): e95344. PubMed ID: 24751918

    This article suggests that the GJA1-gene has no connection with the development of TOF.

GJA1 Preparation Options

To obtain the soluble and functional target protein, the versatile Magic™ membrane protein production platform in Creative Biolabs enables many flexible options, from which you can always find a better match for your particular project. Aided by our versatile Magic™ anti-membrane protein antibody discovery platform, we also provide customized anti-GJA1 antibody development services.


Creative Biolabs' skillful scientists are glad to leverage our expertise and advanced technologies to help you with the member protein research. If you are interested, please feel free to contact us for more details.

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