Introduction of GJC1
Gap junction gamma-1 protein (GJC1) is also known as gap junction alpha-7 protein (GJA7) or connexin 45 (Cx45). The GJC1 protein is encoded by GJC1 gene in humans and is a member of the connexin gene family. GJC1 is a component of gap junctions. It is composed of arrays of intercellular channels which provide a route for the diffusion of low molecular weight materials from cell to cell. An important paralog of this gene is GJC2. Among the related pathways of GJC1 include gap junction trafficking and transmission across electrical synapses. Gene ontology annotations related to the GJC1 gene include gap junction channel activity and ion channel activity.
|Basic Information of GJC1|
|Protein Name||Gap junction gamma-1 protein|
|Aliases||Connexin-45, Cx45, Gap junction alpha-7 protein, GJA7|
|Organism||Homo sapiens (Human)|
Function of GJC1 Membrane Protein
Gap junction (GJ) is an important intercellular communicating junction that consists of two connexons. The connexons are composed of six transmembrane proteins, termed connexins (CX). Gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) refers to the diffusion and exchange of intracellular molecules of less than 1-1.5 kDa (i.e., small ions, second messengers, amino acids, metabolites, and peptides, etc.) between neighboring cells. They are involved in the regulation of various cellular processes.
To date, at least 21 members of the CX gene family have been reported in the human genome. Functional GJIC has been shown to be characteristically present in undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Transcripts encoding 18 CX isoforms are expressed by hESC. Only a small amount of CXs (CX43, CX45, and CX40) have been confirmed at the protein level. Previous studies have reported that CX43 and CX45 mRNAs are highly enriched in hESCs compared to a series of somatic tissues or spontaneously differentiated hESCs as detected by microarray analysis. Several studies have identified that knockdown of CX expression in mouse ESCs reduces cell proliferation and downregulates the expression of pluripotency markers. Such data demonstrated that CX contributes substantially an essential role in maintaining ESCs in the undifferentiated state.
Fig.1 Interacting proteins for GJC1 gene.
Application of GJC1 Membrane Protein in Literature
The study characterizes the histology and immunohistochemical features of myocardial sleeves in the wall of cardiac veins. This provides evidence of the prominent positive staining for Cx45 in the extracardiac myocardium for the first time.
The article indicates that mesenchymal stem cell transplantation modulates the MI-induced abnormalities by up-regulating Cx43 and down-regulating Cx45 expression.
The article reveals that dynamic uncoupling in Cx45-containing gap junctions might contribute to a slower action potential propagation in the atrioventricular node.
This article demonstrated that CX45 overexpression or knockdown modulates the cell proliferation rate which is associated with the reprogramming efficiency.
This article reports that pre- and peri-implantation development does not require Cx43 and Cx45 and other gap junctional proteins are expressed around these stages which may compensate for the lack of Cx43 and Cx45.
GJC1 Preparation Options
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