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GJC1 Membrane Protein Introduction

Introduction of GJC1

Gap junction gamma-1 protein (GJC1) is also known as gap junction alpha-7 protein (GJA7) or connexin 45 (Cx45). The GJC1 protein is encoded by GJC1 gene in humans and is a member of the connexin gene family. GJC1 is a component of gap junctions. It is composed of arrays of intercellular channels which provide a route for the diffusion of low molecular weight materials from cell to cell. An important paralog of this gene is GJC2. Among the related pathways of GJC1 include gap junction trafficking and transmission across electrical synapses. Gene ontology annotations related to the GJC1 gene include gap junction channel activity and ion channel activity.

Basic Information of GJC1
Protein Name Gap junction gamma-1 protein
Gene Name GJC1
Aliases Connexin-45, Cx45, Gap junction alpha-7 protein, GJA7
Organism Homo sapiens (Human)
UniProt ID P36383
Transmembrane Times 4
Length (aa) 396
Sequence MSWSFLTRLLEEIHNHSTFVGKIWLTVLIVFRIVLTAVGGESIYYDEQSKFVCNTEQPGCENVCYDAFAPLSHVRFWVFQIILVATPSVMYLGYAIHKIAKMEHGEADKKAARSKPYAMRWKQHRALEETEEDNEEDPMMYPEMELESDKENKEQSQPKPKHDGRRRIREDGLMKIYVLQLLARTVFEVGFLIGQYFLYGFQVHPFYVCSRLPCPHKIDCFISRPTEKTIFLLIMYGVTGLCLLLNIWEMLHLGFGTIRDSLNSKRRELEDPGAYNYPFTWNTPSAPPGYNIAVKPDQIQYTELSNAKIAYKQNKANTAQEQQYGSHEENLPADLEALQREIRMAQERLDLAVQAYSHQNNPHGPREKKAKVGSKAGSNKSTASSKSGDGKTSVWI

Function of GJC1 Membrane Protein

Gap junction (GJ) is an important intercellular communicating junction that consists of two connexons. The connexons are composed of six transmembrane proteins, termed connexins (CX). Gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) refers to the diffusion and exchange of intracellular molecules of less than 1-1.5 kDa (i.e., small ions, second messengers, amino acids, metabolites, and peptides, etc.) between neighboring cells. They are involved in the regulation of various cellular processes.

To date, at least 21 members of the CX gene family have been reported in the human genome. Functional GJIC has been shown to be characteristically present in undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Transcripts encoding 18 CX isoforms are expressed by hESC. Only a small amount of CXs (CX43, CX45, and CX40) have been confirmed at the protein level. Previous studies have reported that CX43 and CX45 mRNAs are highly enriched in hESCs compared to a series of somatic tissues or spontaneously differentiated hESCs as detected by microarray analysis. Several studies have identified that knockdown of CX expression in mouse ESCs reduces cell proliferation and downregulates the expression of pluripotency markers. Such data demonstrated that CX contributes substantially an essential role in maintaining ESCs in the undifferentiated state.

Fig.1 Interacting proteins for GJC1 gene.

Application of GJC1 Membrane Protein in Literature

  1. Kugler S., et al. Presence of cardiomyocytes exhibiting Purkinje-type morphology and prominent connexin45 immunoreactivity in the myocardial sleeves of cardiac veins. Heart Rhythm. 2018, 15(2):258-264. PubMed ID: 28987458

    The study characterizes the histology and immunohistochemical features of myocardial sleeves in the wall of cardiac veins. This provides evidence of the prominent positive staining for Cx45 in the extracardiac myocardium for the first time.

  2. Li J.Y., et al. Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells modulated Cx43 and Cx45 expression in rats with myocardial infarction. Cytotechnology. 2018, 70(1): 225-234. PubMed ID: 28929261

    The article indicates that mesenchymal stem cell transplantation modulates the MI-induced abnormalities by up-regulating Cx43 and down-regulating Cx45 expression.

  3. Ye W.G., et al. Junctional delay, frequency, and direction-dependent uncoupling of human heterotypic Cx45/Cx43 gap junction channels. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2017, 111: 17-26. PubMed ID: 28760564

    The article reveals that dynamic uncoupling in Cx45-containing gap junctions might contribute to a slower action potential propagation in the atrioventricular node.

  4. Ke Q., et al. Enhanced generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells by ectopic expression of Connexin 45. Sci Rep. 2017, 7(1): 458. PubMed ID: 28352086

    This article demonstrated that CX45 overexpression or knockdown modulates the cell proliferation rate which is associated with the reprogramming efficiency.

  5. Nishii K., et al. Absence of connexin43 and connexin45 does not disturb pre- and peri-implantation development. Zygote. 2016, 24(3): 457-64. PubMed ID: 27172058

    This article reports that pre- and peri-implantation development does not require Cx43 and Cx45 and other gap junctional proteins are expressed around these stages which may compensate for the lack of Cx43 and Cx45.

GJC1 Preparation Options

To obtain the soluble and functional target protein, the versatile Magic™ membrane protein production platform in Creative Biolabs enables many flexible options, from which you can always find a better match for your particular project. Besides, aided by our versatile Magic™ anti-membrane protein antibody discovery platform, we also provide customized anti-GJC1 antibody development services.


As a leading service provider, Creative Biolabs is proud to present our professional service in membrane protein preparation and help you with the research of membrane proteins. Please do not hesitate to inquire us for more details.

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