Introduction of GPM6A
Neuronal membrane glycoprotein M6-a (GPM6A), also known as M6a, M6A, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GPM6A gene. GPM6A is a membrane glycoprotein that is abundantly expressed in CNS neurons, especially in the hippocampus. The functions of GPM6A in CNS include regulation of filopodium formation, neurite outgrowth and, most likely, synaptogenesis. Overexpression of GPM6A in rat hippocampal neurons as well as in neuronal (N2a, PC12) and non-neuronal cell lines (COS7) induces extensive formation of filopodia. Inhibition of endogenous GPM6A expression by siRNA reduces the number of filopodia and synaptic clusters. The filopodia induced by GPM6A are highly motile and become stabilized upon contact with presynaptic regions. Mutational analysis identified cysteine residues in the large extracellular domain of Gpm6a to be critical for the process of GPM6A induced filopodium formation. In addition, the localization of GPM6A in the membrane lipid microdomains and the activity of Src kinases and MAPK are required for this process.
|Basic Information of GPM6A|
|Protein Name||Neuronal membrane glycoprotein M6-a|
|Organism||Homo sapiens (Human)|
Function of GPM6A Membrane Protein
GPM6A was originally identified as a stress- and antidepressant-responsive gene in the hippocampus in a number of animal models of chronic stress. Altered hippocampal expression of GPM6A has been reported in postmortem brain of depressed suicides of humans. Moreover, polymorphisms in the GPM6A gene sequence are associated with pathological conditions such as bipolar disorders, schizophrenia, and claustrophobia. In addition, an increased level of GPM6A resulting from de novo duplication of the GPM6A gene has been reported in a patient with a learning disability and behavioral anomalies.
Fig.1 The structural domains of GPM6a. (Ito, 2018)
Application of GPM6A Membrane Protein in Literature
This article reveals that HDAC5 appears as a cellular conductor of MEF2C and GPM6A activity. It is regulated by miR-124 and miR-9 to control the development of neurite.
Authors in this group successfully prepared the construct of Gpm6aGFPCreERT2 or ReelinGFPCreERT2, which laid the foundation for tracing the hepatic stellate cell lineage and studying its function.
The article provides a mechanistic insight into the process of Gpm6a-induced neuronal filopodium formation. Neuronal filopodium formation induced by Gpm6a is facilitated by coronin-1a, Rac1, and p21-activated kinase 1.
The article reveals that GPM6A and GPM6B may act as novel oncogenes in the development of human lymphoid leukemia-associated oncogenes.
This article reports that correct GPM6A/M6 levels are essential for cognitive function while altered GPM6A/M6 dosage impairs cognition and lead to phenotypes responsive to cholesterol in human and Drosophila.
GPM6A Preparation Options
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