Introduction of GPR132
GPR132 is encoded by the GPR132 gene, and the protein is also termed as G2A. It was originally identified as an orphan G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) induced by DNA damage and stress. There are two alternative splice variants, G2A-a and G2A-b. The seven-pass transmembrane receptor can actively modulate several cellular biological activities, such as cell cycle, proliferation, and immunity. The third α-helix play important role in the maintenance of protein stability and receptor activation.
|Basic Information of GPR132|
|Protein Name||G-protein coupled receptor 132|
|Organism||Homo sapiens (Human)|
Function of GPR132 Membrane Protein
As a pH-sensing receptor, GPR132 resides in the cell surface membrane to sense changes in extracellular pH, contributing to mediate the reciprocal interaction between cancer cells and macrophages. So GPR132 can regulate cancer cell metastasis and proliferation, immune cell function, inflammation and blood vessel formation. Gpr132 was demonstrated to be a target for activation by Foxp1, a transcription factor that plays key roles in normal lymphopoiesis and lymphoid malignancies. The interaction of Foxp1 and GPR132 may cause cell cycle changes, including G2 arrest. The regulatory function identifies GPR132 as a potential new therapeutic target for cancer treatment and chemoprevention. Furthermore, GPR132, predominantly expressed in the hematopoietic tissues and macrophages, cannot only mediate immune cell migration and phagocytosis but also regulate auto-immunity and lymphocyte homeostasis. The Gpr132 knockout mice exhibit abnormal expansion of both T and B lymphocytes, leading to a severe late-onset autoimmune syndrome. GPR132 was suggested to be a receptor for lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) and fatty acid metabolites.
Fig.1 The regulatory mechanism of GPR132 in human breast cancer. (Chen P, et al. 2017)
Application of GPR132 Membrane Protein in Literature
This article identifies that Gpr132 is a novel target for Foxp1, and the interaction is realized by direct binding. Overexpression of Foxp1 in pre-B cells enhanced Gpr132 transcription and significantly affected the cell cycle, including G2 arrest. Binding of Foxp1 to the Gpr132 gene is inhibited by wild-type Ikaros, a transcription factor influencing the lymphopoiesis and lymphoid malignancies. In Ikaros-deleted acute lymphoblastic leukemia, GPR132 is evaluated as a potential modulator of the cell cycle.
The authors isolate a small molecular N-acyl-3-hydroxyglycines, which can structurally mimic host signaling metabolites. N-acyl-3-hydroxyglycines can activate GPR132/G2A, potentially involved in autoimmune disease and atherosclerosis.
This article highlights that GPR132 can sense the rising lactate in the acidic tumor milieu, which mediates the reciprocal interaction between cancer cells and macrophages during breast cancer metastasis. Activated by lactate, GPR132 promotes the alternative activation of macrophage (M2)-like phenotype, facilitating cancer cell adhesion, migration, and invasion. The deletion of Gpr132 can inverse this bioprocess.
This article reports the involvement of GPR132 in oxaliplatin induced neuropathic pain in mice. The G2A-receptor knockout mice showed lower mechanical hypersensitivity after oxaliplatin treatment. In the sciatic nerve and dorsal root ganglia of oxaliplatin-treatment mice, lipid ligands of G2A maintain high concentration.
The authors summarize that GPR132 participates in the regulation of cancer cell metastasis and proliferation, inflammation, and blood vessel formation. Activated by acidosis, the proton-sensing GPCRs can transduce multiple downstream G protein signaling pathways.
GPR132 Preparation Options
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