Introduction of GPR179
GPR179 is encoded by the GPR179 gene. It belongs to the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family which comprises versatile signaling molecules that mediate the majority of physiological responses to hormones and neurotransmitters. GPR179 belongs to the glutamate receptor or class C GPCR protein, which includes, among others, metabotropic glutamate receptors (GRMs), two γ-aminobutyric acid B receptor (GABABR), the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR), the sweet and umami taste receptors and various orphan receptors.
|Basic Information of GPR179|
|Protein Name||Probable G-protein coupled receptor 179|
|Aliases||Probable G-protein coupled receptor 158-like 1, GPR158-like|
|Organism||Homo sapiens (Human)|
Function of GPR179 Membrane Protein
It has proved that GPR179 is relevant to the vision of mammalian. GPR179 is required for depolarizing bipolar cell function, and whole-exome sequencing identifies mutations in GPR179 leading to autosomal-recessive complete congenital stationary Night Blindness. GPR179 is required for high sensitivity of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 6 (mGluR6) signaling cascade in depolarizing bipolar cells. As we all know, depolarizing photoreceptors and bipolar cells signal via mGluR6, and then photoreceptors constantly release glutamate to adapt to dark. What’s more, GPR179 interacts with TRPM1 and one of its functions is to localize RGS7 and RGS11 near the signaling complex. Another second critical function of GPR179 is to set the state of the TRPM1 channel, allowing it to respond optimally to deactivation of the mGluR6 cascade. In mouse retinas, GPR179 forms physical complexes with the main components of the metabotropic cascade, recruiting mGluR6, TRPM1, and the RGS proteins. Elimination of mGluR6 or RGS proteins, but not TRPM1, detrimentally affects postsynaptic targeting or GPR179 expression.
Fig.1 3D model of the transmembrane region of GPR179. (Audo, 2012)
Application of GPR179 Membrane Protein in Literature
This article performs immunohistochemistry and western blotting to test the expression of GPR179 in HEK293T cells and then indicate that the CACNA1S antibody used here and in the retinal studies published to date, cross-reacts with GPR179.
This article identifies a mutation in the GPR179 gene, which encodes for a G-protein coupled receptor localized to the dendrites of ON-bipolar cells. Gene replacement in rd1 mice that are devoid of the mutation in GPR179 successfully restores the function of both photoreceptors and bipolar cells.
Authors in this group propose that GPR179 along with RGS7 and RGS11 controls the ability of the mGluR6 cascade to gate TRPM1. In addition to its role in localizing RGS7 and RGS11 to the dendritic tips, GPR179 via a direct interaction with the TRPM1 channel alters its ability to be gated directly by capsaicin.
This article demonstrates that, in mouse retinas, GPR179 forms physical complexes with the main components of the metabotropic cascade, recruiting mGluR6, TRPM1, and the RGS proteins. Elimination of mGluR6 or RGS proteins, but not TRPM1, detrimentally affects postsynaptic targeting or GPR179 expression.
This article performs Whole-exome sequencing to identify mutations in GPR179 leading to autosomal-recessive complete congenital stationary night blindness.
GPR179 Preparation Options
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