GPR31 Membrane Protein Introduction

Introduction of GPR31

GPR31 is encoded by the GPR31 gene. It belongs to the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family which is the largest and most diverse group of membrane receptors family in eukaryotes. GPR31 is also known as 112-(S)-hydroxy-5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic acid receptor because GPR31 can bind with 12-(S)-HETE with high affinity. GPR31 possess seven transmembrane alpha helices and use 12-(S)-HETE as the preferred endogenous agonist. It is identified using a chemokine receptor-like probe to screen of a human genomic library.

Basic Information of GPR31
Protein Name G-protein coupled receptor 31
Gene Name GPR31
Aliases 12-(S)-hydroxy-5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic acid receptor, 12-(S)-HETE receptor
Organism Homo sapiens (Human)
UniProt ID O00270
Transmembrane Times 7
Length (aa) 319

Function of GPR31 Membrane Protein

GPR31 belongs to the oxoeicosanoid G-protein-coupled receptor subfamily. Like other oxoeicosanoid receptors, GPR31 activates the MEK-ERK1/2 and NFκB intercellular signaling pathway, which mediate the responses of PC-3 prostate cancer cells to 12(S)-HETE. GPR31 plays a role in the growth-promoting and metastasis-promoting actions. GPR31 is 12-(S)-HETE receptor with high affinity. 12-(S)-HETE plays an important role in regulating various biological functions. For example, 12-(S)-HETE have been proved to increases the invasiveness and metastatic potential in prostate tumors. Furthermore, 12-(S)-HETE is involved in the carcinogenesis of prostate tumors. Given the various biological function of 12-(S)-HETE, GPR31 is viewed to have many pathophysiological roles along with 12-(S)-HETE by 12-(S)-HETE/GPR31 signaling pathway. However, the biological functions of 12-(S)-HETE/GPR31 signaling pathway are still unclear, further studies of the GPR31 will offer mechanistic insights into 12-(S)-HETE-regulated signaling pathway, suggesting the potential new therapies for a variety of diseases.

Proposed mechanism of 12-lipoxygenase and GPR31. Fig.1 Proposed mechanism of 12-lipoxygenase and GPR31. (Ehses, 2015)

Application of GPR31 Membrane Protein in Literature

  1. Zhang X-J., et al. An ALOX12-12-HETE-GPR31 signaling axis is a key mediator of hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury. Nat. Med. 2017, 24:73-88. PubMed ID: 29227475

    Authors in this group identify 12-HETE and GPR31 signaling pathway plays a key role in the determination of the hepatic ischemia reperfusion process, suggesting that inhibition the production of 12-HETE may be a promising option to prevent and treat hepatic ischemia reperfusion-induced liver damage.

  2. Fehrenbacher N., et al. The G protein-coupled receptor GPR31 promotes membrane association of KRAS. The Journal of Cell Biology. 2017, 216(8):2329-2338. PubMed ID: 28619714

    This article reveals that GPR31 is required for oncogenic KRAS signaling by acting as a secretory pathway chaperone for KRAS4B. The silencing of GPR31 expression using RNAi method results in slowing the growth of KRAS-dependent tumor cells.

  3. Fehrenbacher N., et al. Targeting RAS - will GPR31 deliver us a new path forward? Molecular & Cellular Oncology. 2017, 4(6):e1359228. PubMed ID: 29209647

    The article reports that GPR31 plays an important role in mediation the proliferation and survival of KRAS-dependent cancer cells, suggesting that GPR31 is a potential therapeutic target for anti-RAS therapy.

  4. Guo Y., et al. Identification of the Orphan G Protein-coupled Receptor GPR31 as a Receptor for 12-(S)-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acid. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2011, 286(39):33832-33840. PubMed ID: 21712392

    The authors in this article clone and identify GPR31 is a functional receptor of 12-HETE with high affinity and knocking down GPR31 inhibits the 12-HETE induced cell invasion specifically.

  5. Honn K.V., et al. 12-HETER1/GPR31, a high-affinity 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid receptor, is significantly up-regulated in prostate cancer and plays a critical role in prostate cancer progression. The FASEB Journal. 2016, 30(6):2360-2369. PubMed ID: 26965684

    This article shows GPR31 is upregulated in prostate cancer significantly and reveals the critical new role of GPR31 in prostate cancer progression, offering a novel druggable target for prostate cancer.

GPR31 Preparation Options

To obtain the soluble and functional target protein, the versatile Magic™ membrane protein production platform in Creative Biolabs enables many flexible options, from which you can always find a better match for your particular project. Aided by our versatile Magic™ anti-membrane protein antibody discovery platform, we also provide customized anti-GPR31 antibody development services.

Creative Biolabs has won a good reputation among our worldwide customers for accumulating a wealth of experience in the field of membrane protein. As a forward-looking research institute as well as a leading customer service provider, which have accomplished numerous challenging projects including generation of many functional membrane proteins. Please feel free to contact us for more information.


  1. Ehses J.A. and Donath M. Y. (2015). Targeting 12-lipoxygenase as a novel strategy to combat the effects of inflammation on beta cells in diabetes. Diabetologia. 58(3):425-428.

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