Introduction of GPR55
GPR55 is a G protein-coupled receptor that in humans is encoded by the GPR55 gene. It was initially identified as a putative cannabinoid receptor in 1999 as it has a similar amino acid sequence in the binding region. During the past years, the function and applications of GPR55 have been widely studied.
|Basic Information of GPR55|
|Protein Name||G-protein coupled receptor 55|
|Organism||Homo sapiens (Human)|
Function of GPR55 Membrane Protein
GPR55 is a GPCR which is thought to be part of the endocannabinoid system (CB1 and CB2). Studies have shown that GPR55 is expressed in multiple tissues of the body, including the brain, spleen, and bones, and in cells such as adipocytes, gastrointestinal tract cells, and islets of Langerhans. Particularly, GPR55 is expressed abundantly in the brain, such as the striatum, suggesting it might fulfill a role in motor function. During the past years, numerous studies have revealed various physiological functions of GPR55. It has been reported that GPR55 could initiate a cascade which increases intracellular calcium, including in the dorsal root ganglion, likely through a RhoA-dependent mechanism. GPR55 also enhances neurotransmitter release in the hippocampal CA1 region. What’s more, several reports have highlighted the role of GPR55 in several cancer types, such as glioma, melanoma, and pancreatic cancer cells.
Fig.1 Overview of the GPR55 signaling pathway by LPI. (Yang, 2016)
Application of GPR55 Membrane Protein in Literature
This article aims to examine the effects of Abn-CBD (GPR55 agonist) and LH-21 (CB1 antagonist) on human and mouse islet function, and to determine signal via GPR55 using islets from GPR55-/- mice. It suggests that Abn-CBD and LH-21 could improve human and mouse islet β-cell function and viability. And the designation of Abn-CBD and LH-21 as a GPR55 agonist and a CB1 antagonist should be revised.
This article reveals that GPR55 is involved in the migratory behavior of human breast cancer cells and could serve as a pharmacological target for preventing metastasis.
This article finds that CB2r and GPR55 gene expressions were significantly lower (by 33 and 41%, respectively) in the DLPFC of suicide cases. It indicates that CB2r and GPR55 may play a relevant role in the neurobiology of suicide.
This article suggests that GPR55 plays a potential role in developing navigation strategies and in the mechanisms involved in spatial memory (object placement memory).
This report indicates that GPR55 and CB1 play differential roles in colon carcinogenesis where the former seems to act as an oncogene and the latter as a tumor suppressor.
GPR55 Preparation Options
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