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GPR55 Membrane Protein Introduction

Introduction of GPR55

GPR55 is a G protein-coupled receptor that in humans is encoded by the GPR55 gene. It was initially identified as a putative cannabinoid receptor in 1999 as it has a similar amino acid sequence in the binding region. During the past years, the function and applications of GPR55 have been widely studied.

Basic Information of GPR55
Protein Name G-protein coupled receptor 55
Gene Name GPR55
Aliases N/A
Organism Homo sapiens (Human)
UniProt ID Q9Y2T6
Transmembrane Times 7
Length (aa) 319
Sequence MSQQNTSGDCLFDGVNELMKTLQFAVHIPTFVLGLLLNLLAIHGFSTFLKNRWPDYAATSIYMINLAVFDLLLVLSLPFKMVLSQVQSPFPSLCTLVECLYFVSMYGSVFTICFISMDRFLAIRYPLLVSHLRSPRKIFGICCTIWVLVWTGSIPIYSFHGKVEKYMCFHNMSDDTWSAKVFFPLEVFGFLLPMGIMGFCCSRSIHILLGRRDHTQDWVQQKACIYSIAASLAVFVVSFLPVHLGFFLQFLVRNSFIVECRAKQSISFFLQLSMCFSNVNCCLDVFCYYFVIKEFRMNIRAHRPSRVQLVLQDTTISRG

Function of GPR55 Membrane Protein

GPR55 is a GPCR which is thought to be part of the endocannabinoid system (CB1 and CB2). Studies have shown that GPR55 is expressed in multiple tissues of the body, including the brain, spleen, and bones, and in cells such as adipocytes, gastrointestinal tract cells, and islets of Langerhans. Particularly, GPR55 is expressed abundantly in the brain, such as the striatum, suggesting it might fulfill a role in motor function. During the past years, numerous studies have revealed various physiological functions of GPR55. It has been reported that GPR55 could initiate a cascade which increases intracellular calcium, including in the dorsal root ganglion, likely through a RhoA-dependent mechanism. GPR55 also enhances neurotransmitter release in the hippocampal CA1 region. What’s more, several reports have highlighted the role of GPR55 in several cancer types, such as glioma, melanoma, and pancreatic cancer cells.

Overview of the GPR55 signaling pathway by LPI. Fig.1 Overview of the GPR55 signaling pathway by LPI. (Yang, 2016)

Application of GPR55 Membrane Protein in Literature

  1. Ruz-Maldonado I., et.al. LH-21 and abnormal cannabidiol improve β-cell function in isolated human and mouse islets through GPR55-dependent and-independent signalling. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism. 2018, 20(4):930-42. PubMed ID: 29205751

    This article aims to examine the effects of Abn-CBD (GPR55 agonist) and LH-21 (CB1 antagonist) on human and mouse islet function, and to determine signal via GPR55 using islets from GPR55-/- mice. It suggests that Abn-CBD and LH-21 could improve human and mouse islet β-cell function and viability. And the designation of Abn-CBD and LH-21 as a GPR55 agonist and a CB1 antagonist should be revised.

  2. Zhou X.L., et.al. The LPI/GPR55 axis enhances human breast cancer cell migration via HBXIP and p-MLC signaling. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica. 2018, 39(3):459. PubMed ID: 29188802

    This article reveals that GPR55 is involved in the migratory behavior of human breast cancer cells and could serve as a pharmacological target for preventing metastasis.

  3. García-Gutiérrez M.S., et.al. Alterations in Gene and Protein Expression of Cannabinoid CB 2 and GPR55 Receptors in the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex of Suicide Victims. Neurotherapeutics. 2018, 1-1. PubMed ID: 29435814

    This article finds that CB2r and GPR55 gene expressions were significantly lower (by 33 and 41%, respectively) in the DLPFC of suicide cases. It indicates that CB2r and GPR55 may play a relevant role in the neurobiology of suicide.

  4. Marichal-Cancino B.A., et.al. Possible role of hippocampal GPR55 in spatial learning and memory in rats. Acta Neurobiol Exp. 2018, 78:41-50. PubMed ID: 29694340

    This article suggests that GPR55 plays a potential role in developing navigation strategies and in the mechanisms involved in spatial memory (object placement memory).

  5. Hasenoehrl C., et.al. G protein-coupled receptor GPR55 promotes colorectal cancer and has opposing effects on cannabinoid receptor 1. International journal of cancer. 2018, 142(1):121-32. PubMed ID: 28875496

    This report indicates that GPR55 and CB1 play differential roles in colon carcinogenesis where the former seems to act as an oncogene and the latter as a tumor suppressor.

GPR55 Preparation Options

To offer high-quality membrane protein products to global customers, we have developed a robust Magic™ membrane protein production platform. We are happy to work with you and accelerate the development of your project. Aided by our versatile Magic™ anti-membrane protein antibody discovery platform, we also provide customized anti-GPR55 antibody development services.


Equipped with advanced technology platforms and professional scientists, Creative Biolabs is confident in delivering the most satisfactory membrane protein preparation service to our worldwide clients. Except for GPR55 membrane protein preparation, we also offer other membrane protein products. If you are interested in the service we can provide, please feel free to contact us and get more information.

Reference

  1. Yang H., et.al. (2016). GPR55-a putative “type 3” cannabinoid receptor in inflammation. Journal of basic and clinical physiology and pharmacology. 27(3), 297-302.

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