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GPR98 Membrane Protein Introduction

Introduction of GPR98

G protein-coupled receptor 98 (GPR98) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GPR98 gene. Several alternatively spliced transcripts have been described. GPR98 is the largest GPCR known, with a size of 6300 amino acids and consisting of 90 exons. There are 8 splice variants of VlgR1, named VlgR1a-1e and Mass1.1-1.3. The N-terminus consists of 5800 amino acids containing 35 Calx-beta domains, one pentraxin domain, and one epilepsy-related repeat. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include G-protein coupled receptor activity and transmembrane signaling receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is SLC8A1.

Basic Information of GPR98
Protein Name G-protein coupled receptor 98
Gene Name GPR98
Aliases Monogenic audiogenic seizure susceptibility protein 1 homolog, Usher syndrome type-2C protein, Very large G-protein coupled receptor 1, KIAA0686, KIAA1943, MASS1, VLGR1
Organism Homo sapiens (Human)
UniProt ID Q8WXG9
Transmembrane Times 7
Length (aa) 6306
Sequence MSVFLGPGMPSASLLVNLLSALLILFVFGETEIRFTGQTEFVVNETSTTVIRLIIERIGEPANVTAIVSLYGEDAGDFFDTYAAAFIPAGETNRTVYIAVCDDDLPEPDETFIFHLTLQKPSANVKLGWPRTVTVTILSNDNAFGIISFNMLPSIAVSEPKGRNESMPLTLIREKGTYGMVMVTFEVEGGPNPPDEDLSPVKGNITFPPGRATVIYNLTVLDDEVPENDEIFLIQLKSVEGGAEINTSRNSIEIIIKKNDSPVRFLQSIYLVPEEDHILIIPVVRGKDNNGNLIGSDEYEVSISYAVTTGNSTAHAQQNLDFIDLQPNTTVVFPPFIHESHLKFQIVDDTIPEIAESFHIMLLKDTLQGDAVLISPSVVQVTIKPNDKPYGVLSFNSVLFERTVIIDEDRISRYEEITVVRNGGTHGNVSANWVLTRNSTDPSPVTADIRPSSGVLHFAQGQMLATIPLTVVDDDLPEEAEAYLLQILPHTIRGGAEVSEPAELLFYIQDSDDVYGLITFFPMENQKIESSPGERYLSLSFTRLGGTKGDVRLLYSVLYIPAGAVDPLQAKEGILNISRRNDLIFPEQKTQVTTKLPIRNDAFLQNGAHFLVQLETVELLNIIPLIPPISPRFGEICNISLLVTPAIANGEIGFLSNLPIILHEPEDFAAEVVYIPLHRDGTDGQATVYWSLKPSGFNSKAVTPDDIGPFNGSVLFLSGQSDTTINITIKGDDIPEMNETVTLSLDRVNVENQVLKSGYTSRDLIILENDDPGGVFEFSPASRGPYVIKEGESVELHIIRSRGSLVKQFLHYRVEPRDSNEFYGNTGVLEFKPGEREIVITLLARLDGIPELDEHYWVVLSSHGERESKLGSATIVNITILKNDDPHGIIEFVSDGLIVMINESKGDAIYSAVYDVVRNRGNFGDVSVSWVVSPDFTQDVFPVQGTVVFGDQEFSKNITIYSLPDEIPEEMEEFTVILLNGTGGAKVGNRTTATLRIRRNDDPIYFAEPRVVRVQEGETANFTVLRNGSVDVTCMVQYATKDGKATARERDFIPVEKGETLIFEVGSRQQSISIFVNEDGIPETDEPFYIILLNSTGDTVVYQYGVATVIIEANDDPNGIFSLEPIDKAVEEGKTNAFWILRHRGYFGSVSVSWQLFQNDSALQPGQEFYETSGTVNFMDGEEAKPIILHAFPDKIPEFNEFYFLKLVNISGGSPGPGGQLAETNLQVTVMVPFNDDPFGVFILDPECLEREVAEDVLSEDDMSYITNFTILRQQGVFGDVQLGWEILSSEFPAGLPPMIDFLLVGIFPTTVHLQQHMRRHHSGTDALYFTGLEGAFGTVNPKYHPSRNNTIANFTFSAWVMPNANTNGFIIAKDDGNGSIYYGVKIQTNESHVTLSLHYKTLGSNATYIAKTTVMKYLEESVWLHLLIILEDGIIEFYLDGNAMPRGIKSLKGEAITDGPGILRIGAGINGNDRFTGLMQDVRSYERKLTLEEIYELHAMPAKSDLHPISGYLEFRQGETNKSFIISARDDNDEEGEELFILKLVSVYGGARISEENTTARLTIQKSDNANGLFGFTGACIPEIAEEGSTISCVVERTRGALDYVHVFYTISQIETDGINYLVDDFANASGTITFLPWQRSEVLNIYVLDDDIPELNEYFRVTLVSAIPGDGKLGSTPTSGASIDPEKETTDITIKASDHPYGLLQFSTGLPPQPKDAMTLPASSVPHITVEEEDGEIRLLVIRAQGLLGRVTAEFRTVSLTAFSPEDYQNVAGTLEFQPGERYKYIFINITDNSIPELEKSFKVELLNLEGGVAELFRVDGSGSGDGDMEFFLPTIHKRASLGVASQILVTIAASDHAHGVFEFSPESLFVSGTEPEDGYSTVTLNVIRHHGTLSPVTLHWNIDSDPDGDLAFTSGNITFEIGQTSANITVEILPDEDPELDKAFSVSVLSVSSGSLGAHINATLTVLASDDPYGIFIFSEKNRPVKVEEATQNITLSIIRLKGLMGKVLVSYATLDDMEKPPYFPPNLARATQGRDYIPASGFALFGANQSEATIAISILDDDEPERSESVFIELLNSTLVAKVQSRSIPNSPRLGPKVETIAQLIIIANDDAFGTLQLSAPIVRVAENHVGPIINVTRTGGAFADVSVKFKAVPITAIAGEDYSIASSDVVLLEGETSKAVPIYVINDIYPELEESFLVQLMNETTGGARLGALTEAVIIIEASDDPYGLFGFQITKLIVEEPEFNSVKVNLPIIRNSGTLGNVTVQWVATINGQLATGDLRVVSGNVTFAPGETIQTLLLEVLADDVPEIEEVIQVQLTDASGGGTIGLDRIANIIIPANDDPYGTVAFAQMVYRVQEPLERSSCANITVRRSGGHFGRLLLFYSTSDIDVVALAMEEGQDLLSYYESPIQGVPDPLWRTWMNVSAVGEPLYTCATLCLKEQACSAFSFFSASEGPQCFWMTSWISPAVNNSDFWTYRKNMTRVASLFSGQAVAGSDYEPVTRQWAIMQEGDEFANLTVSILPDDFPEMDESFLISLLEVHLMNISASLKNQPTIGQPNISTVVIALNGDAFGVFVIYNISPNTSEDGLFVEVQEQPQTLVELMIHRTGGSLGQVAVEWRVVGGTATEGLDFIGAGEILTFAEGETKKTVILTILDDSEPEDDESIIVSLVYTEGGSRILPSSDTVRVNILANDNVAGIVSFQTASRSVIGHEGEILQFHVIRTFPGRGNVTVNWKIIGQNLELNFANFSGQLFFPEGSLNTTLFVHLLDDNIPEEKEVYQVILYDVRTQGVPPAGIALLDAQGYAAVLTVEASDEPHGVLNFALSSRFVLLQEANITIQLFINREFGSLGAINVTYTTVPGMLSLKNQTVGNLAEPEVDFVPIIGFLILEEGETAAAINITILEDDVPELEEYFLVNLTYVGLTMAASTSFPPRLDSEGLTAQVIIDANDGARGVIEWQQSRFEVNETHGSLTLVAQRSREPLGHVSLFVYAQNLEAQVGLDYIFTPMILHFADGERYKNVNIMILDDDIPEGDEKFQLILTNPSPGLELGKNTIALIIVLANDDGPGVLSFNNSEHFFLREPTALYVQESVAVLYIVREPAQGLFGTVTVQFIVTEVNSSNESKDLTPSKGYIVLEEGVRFKALQISAILDTEPEMDEYFVCTLFNPTGGARLGVHVQTLITVLQNQAPLGLFSISAVENRATSIDIEEANRTVYLNVSRTNGIDLAVSVQWETVSETAFGMRGMDVVFSVFQSFLDESASGWCFFTLENLIYGIMLRKSSVTVYRWQGIFIPVEDLNIENPKTCEAFNIGFSPYFVITHEERNEEKPSLNSVFTFTSGFKLFLVQTIIILESSQVRYFTSDSQDYLIIASQRDDSELTQVFRWNGGSFVLHQKLPVRGVLTVALFNKGGSVFLAISQANARLNSLLFRWSGSGFINFQEVPVSGTTEVEALSSANDIYLIFAENVFLGDQNSIDIFIWEMGQSSFRYFQSVDFAAVNRIHSFTPASGIAHILLIGQDMSALYCWNSERNQFSFVLEVPSAYDVASVTVKSLNSSKNLIALVGAHSHIYELAYISSHSDFIPSSGELIFEPGEREATIAVNILDDTVPEKEESFKVQLKNPKGGAEIGINDSVTITILSNDDAYGIVAFAQNSLYKQVEEMEQDSLVTLNVERLKGTYGRITIAWEADGSISDIFPTSGVILFTEGQVLSTITLTILADNIPELSEVVIVTLTRITTEGVEDSYKGATIDQDRSKSVITTLPNDSPFGLVGWRAASVFIRVAEPKENTTTLQLQIARDKGLLGDIAIHLRAQPNFLLHVDNQATENEDYVLQETIIIMKENIKEAHAEVSILPDDLPELEEGFIVTITEVNLVNSDFSTGQPSVRRPGMEIAEIMIEENDDPRGIFMFHVTRGAGEVITAYEVPPPLNVLQVPVVRLAGSFGAVNVYWKASPDSAGLEDFKPSHGILEFADKQVTAMIEITIIDDAEFELTETFNISLISVAGGGRLGDDVVVTVVIPQNDSPFGVFGFEEKTVMIDESLSSDDPDSYVTLTVVRSPGGKGTVRLEWTIDEKAKHNLSPLNGTLHFDETESQKTIVLHTLQDTVLEEDRRFTIQLISIDEVEISPVKGSASIIIRGDKRASGEVGIAPSSRHILIGEPSAKYNGTAIISLVRGPGILGEVTVFWRIFPPSVGEFAETSGKLTMRDEQSAVIVVIQALNDDIPEEKSFYEFQLTAVSEGGVLSESSSTANITVVASDSPYGRFAFSHEQLRVSEAQRVNITIIRSSGDFGHVRLWYKTMSGTAEAGLDFVPAAGELLFEAGEMRKSLHVEILDDDYPEGPEEFSLTITKVELQGRGYDFTIQENGLQIDQPPEIGNISIVRIIIMKNDNAEGIIEFDPKYTAFEVEEDVGLIMIPVVRLHGTYGYVTADFISQSSSASPGGVDYILHGSTVTFQHGQNLSFINISIIDDNESEFEEPIEILLTGATGGAVLGRHLVSRIIIAKSDSPFGVIRFLNQSKISIANPNSTMILSLVLERTGGLLGEIQVNWETVGPNSQEALLPQNRDIADPVSGLFYFGEGEGGVRTIILTIYPHEEIEVEETFIIKLHLVKGEAKLDSRAKDVTLTIQEFGDPNGVVQFAPETLSKKTYSEPLALEGPLLITFFVRRVKGTFGEIMVYWELSSEFDITEDFLSTSGFFTIADGESEASFDVHLLPDEVPEIEEDYVIQLVSVEGGAELDLEKSITWFSVYANDDPHGVFALYSDRQSILIGQNLIRSIQINITRLAGTFGDVAVGLRISSDHKEQPIVTENAERQLVVKDGATYKVDVVPIKNQVFLSLGSNFTLQLVTVMLVGGRFYGMPTILQEAKSAVLPVSEKAANSQVGFESTAFQLMNITAGTSHVMISRRGTYGALSVAWTTGYAPGLEIPEFIVVGNMTPTLGSLSFSHGEQRKGVFLWTFPSPGWPEAFVLHLSGVQSSAPGGAQLRSGFIVAEIEPMGVFQFSTSSRNIIVSEDTQMIRLHVQRLFGFHSDLIKVSYQTTAGSAKPLEDFEPVQNGELFFQKFQTEVDFEITIINDQLSEIEEFFYINLTSVEIRGLQKFDVNWSPRLNLDFSVAVITILDNDDLAGMDISFPETTVAVAVDTTLIPVETESTTYLSTSKTTTILQPTNVVAIVTEATGVSAIPEKLVTLHGTPAVSEKPDVATVTANVSIHGTFSLGPSIVYIEEEMKNGTFNTAEVLIRRTGGFTGNVSITVKTFGERCAQMEPNALPFRGIYGISNLTWAVEEEDFEEQTLTLIFLDGERERKVSVQILDDDEPEGQEFFYVFLTNPQGGAQIVEEKDDTGFAAFAMVIITGSDLHNGIIGFSEESQSGLELREGAVMRRLHLIVTRQPNRAFEDVKVFWRVTLNKTVVVLQKDGVNLVEELQSVSGTTTCTMGQTKCFISIELKPEKVPQVEVYFFVELYEATAGAAINNSARFAQIKILESDESQSLVYFSVGSRLAVAHKKATLISLQVARDSGTGLMMSVNFSTQELRSAETIGRTIISPAISGKDFVITEGTLVFEPGQRSTVLDVILTPETGSLNSFPKRFQIVLFDPKGGARIDKVYGTANITLVSDADSQAIWGLADQLHQPVNDDILNRVLHTISMKVATENTDEQLSAMMHLIEKITTEGKIQAFSVASRTLFYEILCSLINPKRKDTRGFSHFAEVTENFAFSLLTNVTCGSPGEKSKTILDSCPYLSILALHWYPQQINGHKFEGKEGDYIRIPERLLDVQDAEIMAGKSTCKLVQFTEYSSQQWFISGNNLPTLKNKVLSLSVKGQSSQLLTNDNEVLYRIYAAEPRIIPQTSLCLLWNQAAASWLSDSQFCKVVEETADYVECACSHMSVYAVYARTDNLSSYNEAFFTSGFICISGLCLAVLSHIFCARYSMFAAKLLTHMMAASLGTQILFLASAYASPQLAEESCSAMAAVTHYLYLCQFSWMLIQSVNFWYVLVMNDEHTERRYLLFFLLSWGLPAFVVILLIVILKGIYHQSMSQIYGLIHGDLCFIPNVYAALFTAALVPLTCLVVVFVVFIHAYQVKPQWKAYDDVFRGRTNAAEIPLILYLFALISVTWLWGGLHMAYRHFWMLVLFVIFNSLQGLYVFMVYFILHNQMCCPMKASYTVEMNGHPGPSTAFFTPGSGMPPAGGEISKSTQNLIGAMEEVPPDWERASFQQGSQASPDLKPSPQNGATFPSSGGYGQGSLIADEESQEFDDLIFALKTGAGLSVSDNESGQGSQEGGTLTDSQIVELRRIPIADTHL

Function of GPR98 Membrane Protein

GPR98 may have an important role in the development of the central nervous system. The protein binds calcium and is expressed in the central nervous system. Mice Vlgr1 knockouts have been shown to phenocopy Usher's syndrome and cause audiogenic seizures. Several diseases are associated with ADGRV1such as Usher Syndrome, Type Iic, and Febrile Seizures.

A Schematic representation of the very large G-protein coupled receptor 1. Fig.1 A Schematic representation of the very large G-protein coupled receptor 1. (Bousfiha, 2017)

Application of GPR98 Membrane Protein in Literature

  1. Bousfiha A., et al. Novel compound heterozygous mutations in the GPR98 (USH2C) gene identified by whole exome sequencing in a Moroccan deaf family. Mol Biol Rep. 2017, 44(5): 429-434. PubMed ID: 28951997

    Authors in this group identify two novel compound heterozygote mutations in the GPR98 gene causing Usher syndrome, which is the first time that mutations in the GPR98 gene are described in the Moroccan deaf patients.

  2. Moteki H., et al. USH2 caused by GPR98 mutation diagnosed by massively parallel sequencing in advance of the occurrence of visual symptoms. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2015, 124 Suppl 1: 123S-8S. PubMed ID: 25743181

    The article presents 2 patients who were identified with mutations in the GPR98 gene that causes Usher syndrome type 2. This research supports the use of comprehensive genetic diagnosis for Usher syndrome.

  3. Hu Q.X., et al. G Constitutive Gαi coupling activity of very large G protein-coupled receptor 1 (VLGR1) and its regulation by PDZD7 protein. J Biol Chem. 2014, 289(35): 24215-25. PubMed ID: 24962568

    Authors in this group identify an independent Gαi signaling pathway of the VLGR1 β-subunit. The regulatory mechanisms of it may play a role in the development of Usher syndrome.

  4. Urano T., et al. GPR98/Gpr98 gene is involved in the regulation of human and mouse bone mineral density. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012, 97(4): E565-74. PubMed ID: 22419726

    This article focuses on the role of GPR98 gene in the regulation of human and mouse bone mineral density. It shows that GPR98 gene is essential in the regulation of bone metabolism.

  5. García-García G., et al. The contribution of GPR98 and DFNB31 genes to a Spanish Usher syndrome type 2 cohort. Mol Vis. 2013, 19: 367-73. PubMed ID: 23441107

    This article reports that USH2A and GPR98 are responsible for 95.8% and 5.2% of USH2 mutated cases, respectively, in Spain. They confirmed that mutations in GPR98 contribute a significant but minor role to Usher syndrome type 2.

GPR98 Preparation Options

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Reference

  1. Bousfiha A, et al. (2017). Novel compound heterozygous mutations in the GPR98 (USH2C) gene identified by whole exome sequencing in a Moroccan deaf family. Mol Biol Rep. 44(5): 429-434.

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