Close

GRIK3 Membrane Protein Introduction

Introduction of GRIK3

Glutamate receptors are composed of Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) and metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). GRIK3 is a subunit of iGluRs, belonging to the subfamily of kainate receptors. Kainate receptors are further classified into low-affinity receptor families (GRIK1-GRIK3) and high-affinity receptor families (GRIK4-GRIK5) based on their affinity for the neurotoxin kainic acid. GRIK3 can coassemble with either GRIK4 or GRIK5 to form heteromeric receptors and act as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. GRIK3 has multiple isoforms derived from alternative splicing and RNA editing. Two splice variants of GRIK3 have been identified, GRIK3a and GRIK3b, in which almost the entire C-terminus of GRIK3a is replaced by an unrelated sequence of 55 amino acids.

Basic Information of GRIK3
Protein Name Glutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 3
Gene Name GRIK3
Aliases EAA5, GluR-7
Organism Homo sapiens (Human)
UniProt ID Q13003
Transmembrane Times 3
Length (aa) 919
Sequence MTAPWRRLRSLVWEYWAGLLVCAFWIPDSRGMPHVIRIGGIFEYADGPNAQVMNAEEHAFRFSANIINRNRTLLPNTTLTYDIQRIHFHDSFEATKKACDQLALGVVAIFGPSQGSCTNAVQSICNALEVPHIQLRWKHHPLDNKDTFYVNLYPDYASLSHAILDLVQYLKWRSATVVYDDSTGLIRLQELIMAPSRYNIRLKIRQLPIDSDDSRPLLKEMKRGREFRIIFDCSHTMAAQILKQAMAMGMMTEYYHFIFTTLDLYALDLEPYRYSGVNLTGFRILNVDNPHVSAIVEKWSMERLQAAPRSESGLLDGVMMTDAALLYDAVHIVSVCYQRAPQMTVNSLQCHRHKAWRFGGRFMNFIKEAQWEGLTGRIVFNKTSGLRTDFDLDIISLKEDGLEKVGVWSPADGLNITEVAKGRGPNVTDSLTNRSLIVTTVLEEPFVMFRKSDRTLYGNDRFEGYCIDLLKELAHILGFSYEIRLVEDGKYGAQDDKGQWNGMVKELIDHKADLAVAPLTITHVREKAIDFSKPFMTLGVSILYRKPNGTNPSVFSFLNPLSPDIWMYVLLAYLGVSCVLFVIARFSPYEWYDAHPCNPGSEVVENNFTLLNSFWFGMGSLMQQGSELMPKALSTRIIGGIWWFFTLIIISSYTANLAAFLTVERMESPIDSADDLAKQTKIEYGAVKDGATMTFFKKSKISTFEKMWAFMSSKPSALVKNNEEGIQRALTADYALLMESTTIEYVTQRNCNLTQIGGLIDSKGYGIGTPMGSPYRDKITIAILQLQEEDKLHIMKEKWWRGSGCPEEENKEASALGIQKIGGIFIVLAAGLVLSVLVAVGEFVYKLRKTAEREQRSFCSTVADEIRFSLTCQRRVKHKPQPPMMVKTDAVINMHTFNDRRLPGKDSMACSTSLAPVFP

Functions of GRIK3 Membrane Protein

The kainate receptors are the least studied subfamily of iGluRs. These receptors are thought to have a neuromodulatory role and have been associated with a variety of disorders in the central nervous system, such as epilepsy. This makes kainate receptors interesting potential drug targets. The kainite receptors have been identified to play multiple roles in neuronal plasticity, including both short- and long-term plasticity. Agonists, antagonists, and allosteric modulators have been developed targeting these kainite receptors. Some pyrrolilquinoxalinedione derivatives have been found to behave as potent anticonvulsants in the kindling model, such as the LU97175, which displays an extremely high selectivity for GRIK1 and GRIK2 and, especially, for GRIK3. Still, much of the function and molecular mechanisms of GRIK3 remain to be elucidated in the future.

GRIK3 Membrane Protein Introduction Fig.1 Scheme of kainite receptor subunits. (Pinheiro, 2006)

Application of GRIK3 Membrane Protein in Literature

  1. Venskutonytė R., et al. Molecular recognition of two 2,4-syn-functionalized(S)-glutamate analogues by the kainate receptor GluK3 ligand binding domain. Chemmedchem. 2015, 9(10): 2254-2259. PubMed ID: 25044437

    This article reported structures of GluK3 ligand binding domain in complex with two 2,4-syn-functionalized (S)-glutamate analogues to investigate their structural potential as chemical scaffolds.

  2. Veran J., et al. Zinc potentiates GluK3 glutamate receptor function by stabilizing the ligand binding domain dimer interface. Neuron. 2012, 76(3): 565-578. PubMed ID: 23141068

    This study reported that zinc binding to GluK3 stabilized the GluK3 dimer interface, slowed desensitization, and potentiated currents, providing a mechanism for kainite receptor potentiation at glutamatergic synapses.

  3. Kumar J and Mayer M.L. Crystal structures of the glutamate receptor ion channel GluK3 and GluK5 amino-terminal domains. Journal of Molecular Biology. 2010, 404(4): 680-696. PubMed ID: 20951142

    This article determined the high-resolution crystal structures of the GluK3 and GluK5 amino-terminal domains (ATDs). Moreover, this study also helped strengthen the structure and function of GluK4-GluK5, the least understood family of iGluRs.

  4. Venskutonytė R., et al. Binding site and interlobe interactions of the ionotropic glutamate receptor GluK3 ligand binding domain revealed by high resolution crystal structure in complex with (S)-glutamate. Journal of Structural Biology. 2011, 176(3): 307-314. PubMed ID: 21907808

    This article investigated the X-ray structure of the ligand-binding domain of GluK3 in complex with glutamate for the first time.

  5. Perrais D., et al. Antagonism of recombinant and native GluK3-containing kainate receptors. Neuropharmacology. 2009, 56(1): 131-140. PubMed ID: 18761361

    This article investigated the effects of some of the GluK1 antagonists on currents mediated by recombinant homomeric GluK3 and heteromeric GluK2/3 receptors.

GRIK3 Preparation Options

In vitro studies of membrane proteins to access their structural and functional information is critical to their downstream applications and drug discovery. As a custom-oriented service provider in membrane protein preparation, Creative Biolabs is capable of purifying, stabilizing, and reconstituting your membrane proteins into different formats. We are specialized in the application of different preparation strategies and approaches, such as detergent micelles and liposomes, as well as more recently developed micelles, nanodiscs, amphipols, and SMALPs. Aided by our versatile Magic™ anti-membrane protein antibody discovery platform, we also provide customized anti-GRIK3 antibody development services.


As a company committed to providing the best-quality membrane protein related products and services that advance our customers’ scientific objectives, Creative Biolabs aims to expand the value of your brilliant studies. Contact us to discuss your project requirements.

Reference

  1. Pinheiro P and Mulle C. (2006). Kainate receptors. Cell and tissue research. 326(2): 457-482.

Online Inquiry

Verification code
Click image to refresh the verification code.

CONTACT US

45-1 Ramsey Road, Shirley, NY 11967, USA
Call us at:
USA: 1-631-381-2994
Europe: 44-207-097-1828
Fax: 1-631-207-8356
Email:
Our customer service representatives are available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Contact Us