Introduction of GRIK4
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 4 (GRIK4) is a subunit of the kainate receptors (KARs). Totally, KARs assemble as tetramers from five subunits, GRIK1-5. GRIK1-3 subunits have low-affinity agonist binding sites, while GRIK4 and GRIK5 have high-affinity sites. Unlike other KARs, which are widely distributed in the central nervous system (CNS), GRIK4 subunits are expressed primarily within the cornu ammonis 3 (CA3) region of the hippocampus where it co-assembles pre-and post-synaptically with GRIK2. Due to their high and restricted expression in these tissues, GRIK4-knockout mice provide an interesting mouse model in which to evaluate the role of KARs in hippocampus-dependent behaviors.
|Basic Information of GRIK4|
|Protein Name||Glutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 4|
|Organism||Homo sapiens (Human)|
Functions of GRIK4 Membrane Protein
GRIK4 has been studied for its importance for the central nervous system. Gene variation in the GRIK4, the gene coding for GRIK4, results in behavioral symptomatology consistent with brain diseases such as autism as well as in alterations of synaptic function. Mice with a deletion of GRIK4 have reduced anxiety and an antidepressant-like phenotype. Moreover, these animals are hyperlocomotive and display impaired sensorimotor gating. The GRIK4 kainate receptor subunit is necessary for spatial learning and memory. In the context of kainate-induced excitotoxicity, GRIK4 ablation affects the activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway. In brief, GRIK4 may be relevant to the understanding and treatment of human neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders.
Fig.1 Scheme of kainite receptor subunits. (Pinheiro, 2006)
Application of GRIK4 Membrane Protein in Literature
This study reported the X-ray structure of GluK4 ligand binding domain with kainite at 2.05 Å resolution, together with thermofluor and radiolabel binding affinity data. These results may explain the high binding affinity of GluK4 for kainate.
This study investigated the role of GluK4 subunit in mood disorders. Using GRIK4-deficient mice, the authors tested the behavior of mice with elevated zero-maze, marble-burying test, forced swim test, and the sucrose preference test. The results showed that GRIK-deficient mice had reduced anxiety and an antidepressant-like phenotype.
This study investigated the importance of high-affinity kainate receptor subunits: GluK4 and GluK5 for ionotropic signaling.
The de novo copy number variations of GRIK4, a gene coding for the GluK4 subunit of the kainate receptors, is implicated as a risk factor for mental retardation or autism. This study showed that mice overexpressing GRIK4 in the forebrain displayed social impairment, enhanced anxiety, and depressive states, altered synaptic transmission, etc.
This study investigated the importance of GluK4 kainate receptor for the central nervous system, using GluK4-deficient mice. The results showed that this subunit played a critical role in memory, mood, and excitotoxic neurodegeneration.
GRIK4 Preparation Options
Considering the importance of GRIK4 for the central nervous system, the investigations of the molecular mechanisms and their therapeutic potential is expected to be valued in the future. To help researchers in their membrane protein studies, Creative Biolabs offers various strategies and approaches to isolate, stabilize, and/or crystalize your targets in the functional forms. From our various preparation options, you can always find a proper environment or format that adapts to your protein chemistry. Aided by our versatile Magic™ anti-membrane protein antibody discovery platform, we also provide customized anti-GRIK4 antibody development services.
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