GRIN2B Membrane Protein Introduction

Introduction of GRIN2B

Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2B (GRIN2B) is a subunit of the N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). It is one of the four subunits of GRIN2 and is encoded by gene GRIN2B. This subunit can form tetramers with the obligatory GRIN1 subunits, generating functional NMDARs. GRIN2B shares a classical topological structure with other NMDAR subunits: a large extracellular N-terminus, three and a half transmembrane segments, and an intracellular C-terminus. GRIN2B, although sharing high similarity with its homolog GRIN2A, shows distinct expression patterns, channel properties, and physiological functions. In terms of expression, GRIN2B is under strict regional and age-dependent regulation. It is expressed early in the prenatal brain but after birth, the predominance of GRIN2B is soon overtaken by GRIN2A during development. This developmental switch is critical for brain maturation.

Basic Information of GRIN2B
Protein Name Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2B
Aliases NMDAR2B, NR2B, NR3, hNR3
Organism Homo sapiens (Human)
UniProt ID Q13224
Transmembrane Times 3
Length (aa) 1,484

Functions of GRIN2B Membrane Protein

GRIN2B proteins are involved in important physiological processes such as neuronal signal transduction, long-term potentiation (LTP), long-term depression (LTD), learning and memory, and excitotoxicity. Moreover, it has been implicated in many cases of neurodevelopmental diseases, such as psychiatric conditions originating in childhood and language, motor, and learning disorders, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), developmental delay, epilepsy, and schizophrenia. Compounds specific for the GRIN2B receptor have been developed to provide improvements in patients with severe depression (e.g., CP-101,606) and Parkinson's disease (e.g., CERC-301). Additionally, due to the role of GRIN2B in excitotoxicity, it seems to be a potential candidate for neuroprotection, such as fluoxetine.

GRIN2B Membrane Protein Introduction

Application of GRIN2B Membrane Protein in Literature

  1. Attiori E.S., et al. GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors are upregulated in plasma membranes by the sphingosine-1-phosphate analog FTY720P. Brain Research. 2015, 1624: 349-358. PubMed ID: 26260438

    Using the active phosphorylated S1P analog, FTY720P, this study investigated the potential impact of S1P receptor activation on NMDA receptor subunits in the acute rat hippocampal slices model system. The results suggested that activation of the S1P receptor by FTY720P enhanced GluN2B receptor phosphorylation, resulting in increased levels of GluN1 and GluN2B receptor subunits in neuronal membranes.

  2. Fernandes A., et al. Inhibition of in vivo [3H] MK-801 binding by NMDA receptor open channel blockers and GluN2B antagonists in rats and mice. European journal of pharmacology. 2015, 766: 1-8. PubMed ID: 26325093

    Using the in vivo [(3)H]MK-801 binding, this study investigated the effects of systemically administered NMDA channel blockers and GluN2B receptor antagonists on NMDA receptor activity in rodents. Besides, using ex vivo [(3)H] Ro 25-6981 binding, the receptor occupancy of GluN2B antagonists was also measured.

  3. Hanson J.E., et al. Altered GluN2B NMDA receptor function, and synaptic plasticity during early pathology in the PS2APP mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiology of disease. 2015, 74: 254-262. PubMed ID: 25484285

    This study investigated the function of GluN2B-containing NMDARs and their contributions to synaptic plasticity in transgenic Alzheimer’s disease (AD) mouse model: PS2APP transgenic mice. The results suggested the therapeutic targeting of GluN2B in the AD.

  4. Ferreira J.S., et al. GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors regulate AMPA receptor traffic through anchoring of the synaptic proteasome. Journal of Neuroscience. 2015, 35(22): 8462-8479. PubMed ID: 26041915

    Using GluN2B(-/-) neurons, this study reported a critical role for the GluN2B subunit in regulating NMDA receptor synaptic targeting.

  5. Thompson S.M., et al. Conditional loss of GluN2B in cortex and hippocampus impairs attentional set formation. Behavioral neuroscience. 2015, 129(2): 105. PubMed ID: 25798630

    This study investigated the role of GluN2B-containing NMDARs in the ability to learn, reverse, and shift between stimulus dimensions, using mutant mice lacking GluN2B in the dorsal CA1 of the hippocampus and throughout the cortex. Different behavioral tests were conducted.

GRIN2B Preparation Options

Due to the importance of GluN2B for a large spectrum of physiological processes and their implications for different human diseases, the therapeutic potential of this protein is being actively investigated. To promote the valued membrane protein research of our clients, Creative Biolabs introduces our powerful Magic™ Membrane Protein Production Platform that is capable of preparing functional membrane proteins into various formats using different strategies and approaches. We have a broad panel of detergents and lipids to choose from. Besides, alternative tools such as liposomes, nanodiscs, polymers are provided for maximally keeping the structural and functional integrity of your protein. Aided by our versatile Magic™ anti-membrane protein antibody discovery platform, we also provide customized anti-GRIN2B antibody development services.

Besides, Creative Biolabs is also experienced in dealing with other types of membrane proteins such as G-protein coupled membrane proteins, ion channels, and transporters. Contact us if you want to know more about our membrane protein preparation services.

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