Introduction of GRM2
GRM2 (mGluR2) is one of the group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), which are coupled to Gi/o. mGluRs belong to the family C of the G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) and act to modulate neuronal excitability and synaptic transmission in many brain regions. Like other mGluRs, GRM2 is composed of two main domains, including a large extracellular domain and a 7 transmembrane region. The large extracellular domain is termed the Venus Flytrap domain, which contains the glutamate-binding site. In terms of signaling pathways, GRM2 is involved in signaling pathways including inhibition of adenylyl cyclase, activation of K+ channels, and inhibition of Ca++ channels.
|Basic Information of GRM2|
|Protein Name||Metabotropic glutamate receptor 2|
|Organism||Homo sapiens (Human)|
Functions of GRM2 Membrane Protein
In humans, GRM2 is only expressed in the brain including neurons and astrocytes. GRM2 is predominantly localized at the periphery of the presynaptic terminal. GRM2-deficient mice had been used to study the functions of this receptor. These animals showed normal regulation of basal synaptic transmission and long-term potentiation (LTD) but were severely impaired in terms of LTD induced by low-frequency stimulation at this synapse. In other studies, GRM2 activation was suggested to result in cognitive impairment and had been implicated in addiction to drugs of abuse. As a result, antagonists of this receptor have been considered promising candidates for the treatment of anxiety and other brain disorders.
Applications of GRM2 Membrane Protein in Literature
This article demonstrated that mGluR2/3 was a promising target in the search for smoking cessation medication.
This article investigated the mechanisms for mGluR2/3 agonists against N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction. Results showed that early interventions with mGluR2/3 agonists prevented Schizophrenia-like electrophysiological, morphological, and cognitive deficits in adults via restoring NMDAR signaling during a critical postnatal period.
This article investigated the effects of mGluR2/3 agonist, LY379268, on the extinction and reinstatement of morphine-induced conditioning place preference. LY379268 agonist seemed to be a potential role in the drug-seeking behaviors.
This article demonstrated that a selective mGluR2/3 agonist was effective in reducing the severity of diabetic neuropathy.
This article demonstrated that the soluble extracellular domain of neuroligin 1 functionally interacted with mGluR2 and thereby decreasing synaptic strength.
GRM2 Preparation Options
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