Introduction of GRM6
Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) belong to the family C of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) which are seven-transmembrane-domain proteins that interact with G-proteins. GRM6 (mGluR6) is one of the eight defined mGluRs and it belongs to the group III subfamily receptors, which are coupled to Gi/o. Extracellularly, GRM6 has a large extracellular domain containing the binding site for its ligand, glutamate. Intracellularly, the large C-terminus can interact with different signaling systems. Three GRM6 splice variants can be generated. GRM6 is found primarily in retinal ON bipolar cells. The GRM6 subtype is expressed restrictedly at the postsynaptic site of retinal ON-bipolar cells.
|Basic Information of GRM6|
|Protein Name||Metabotropic glutamate receptor 6|
|Organism||Homo sapiens (Human)|
Functions of GRM6 Membrane Protein
Studies in GRM6-deficient mice have demonstrated the functions of this receptor. These animals developed normally and showed no apparent behavioral abnormalities. However, the investigators found that the GRM6 was essential for synaptic transmission from photoreceptors to the ON bipolar cell and thus the induction of ON responses. When GRM6 is deleted from mice, bipolar cells from homozygous mutants show deficits in ON responses to light, which appears to be manifested by a delayed and decreased ON response to light stimulation. Besides, mutations in the GRM6 gene have been implicated in the development of congenital stationary night blindness type 1 (CSNB1). Recent genome-wide association studies have discovered involvement of GRM6 in heroin addiction. This receptor is emerging as a new drug target due to its functions in different diseases.
Applications of GRM6 Membrane Protein in Literature
This article described a reliable, quantitative in vitro assay for mGluR6 purification and preparation. The investigators constructed a mammalian stable cell line expressing full-length human mGluR6 and optimized the detergent and buffer conditions.
This article introduced a next-generation optogenetic tool, Opto-mGluR6, for recovering vision under moderate daylight illumination. The Opto-mGluR6 was a chimeric protein consisting of the intracellular domains of the mGluR6 and the light-sensing domains of melanopsin.
This study combined the endogenous mGluR6 promoter with additional enhancers in the introns of the mGluR6 gene in the adeno-associated virus vectors for gene targeting of ON bipolar cells. This technique was robust with enhanced transduction efficiency and can facilitate clinical applications for ON bipolar cell-based gene therapies.
This article determined the role of Gαo1 in maintaining the cascade and the synaptic integrity using mice lacking Gαo1.
GRM6 Preparation Options
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