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Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Virus-Like Particles (VLPs)

Creative Biolabs is a world-renowned provider of high-quality HIV VLPs products. Based on our integral VLP technology platform and extensive expertise, we have confidence in tailoring most professional services/products to help customers best deliver their research goals and save their valuable time.

VLPs represent one unique class of nanoparticles which resemble the structure of authentic viruses but lack core viral genetic materials, thus have no infectivity. Due to the special feature of VLPs, they are widely used in a broad range of progress including vaccines, antibody development, lipoparticle technology, delivery systems, bioimaging and cell targeting, etc. Currently, we have successfully launched multiple heterologous expression platforms for the generation of different VLPs, including:


Human immunodeficiency virus, aka HIV, is a member of the genus Lentivirus. HIV is around 60 times smaller than a red blood cell with a diameter of about 120 nm. It is composed of two copies of positive single-stranded RNA enclosed by a conical capsid composed of the viral protein p24. The single-stranded RNA that codes for the virus's nine genes is tightly bound to nucleocapsid proteins, and enzymes needed for the development of the virion such as reverse transcriptase, proteases, ribonuclease, and integrase. Currently, two types of HIV have been characterized: HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is more infective and virulent when compared with HIV-2 and is the cause of the majority of HIV infections globally.

Image of a human T cell (blue) under attack by HIV (yellow). Figure 1. Image of a human T cell (blue) under attack by HIV (yellow).

HIV infects vital cells in the human immune system mainly CD4+ T cells, dendritic cells, and macrophages. There are two ways for HIV infection between CD4+ T cells: cell-free spread and cell-to-cell spread. During the cell-free spread, the virus will firstly bud from an infected T cell and enter the blood, then infect another T cell by chance. Previous reports showed that there are two pathways for cell-to-cell transmission, one is an infected T cell transmit virus immediately to a target T cell via a virological synapse, the other is transmitting HIV to T cells under the help of antigen presenting cell (APC). The HIV infection decreased numbers of CD4+ T cells through different approaches such as apoptosis of uninfected bystander cells and direct viral killing of infected cells. If CD4+ cells are killed and reduced to a certain extent, the whole body immune system will collapse and can’t defend itself against infection anymore. Finally, the HIV infection will cause over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in which progressive failure of the immune system allows opportunistic infections and cancers which threaten one’s life anytime.

HIV VLPs can be typically used for:


Creative Biolabs is highly experienced in various VLP construction and very pleased to provide one-stop service from expression, purification to the characterization. As alternatives, VLP products derived from HBV VLP, HPV VLP, CA16 VLP, EV71 VLP, poliovirus VLP, polyomaviruses VLP, AAV VLP, bacteriophage Qβ VLP, Zika VLP and so on, are also available upon request. Please feel free to inquire us for further discussions.

References

  1. Douek D C, Roederer M, Koup R A. (2009). Emerging concepts in the immunopathogenesis of AIDS. Annual review of medicine, 60, 471-484.
  2. Santi L, Huang Z, Mason H.  (2006). Virus-like particles production in green plants. Methods, 40(1), 66-76.
  3. Evans A S. (1989). Does HIV cause AIDS? An historical perspective. JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 2(2), 107-113.



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