Introduction of LGR5
LGR5 is a seven transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor, encoded by LGR5 gene. The mature LGR5 protein contains up to 17 leucine-rich repeats that are composed of 24 amino acids. LGR5 is especially expressed in placenta, small intestine, brain, colon, duodenum, endometrium, lung, stomach, adrenal. It has been reported that LGR5 may be involved in multiple functions in organs development, the pathological process of cancers.
|Basic Information of LGR5|
|Protein Name||Leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5|
|Aliases||FEX, HG38, GPR49, GPR67, GRP49|
|Organism||Homo sapiens (Human)|
Function of LGR5 Membrane Protein
R-spondins, a soluble protein regulator of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, is the ligand of LGR5. The binding of LGR5 to R-spondins could positively stimulate the activation of Wnt signaling pathway. It is proved that the activated Wnt signaling pathway is required in the development of many organs, including liver, kidney, intestine, bone, reproductive tract, eyes and so on. Besides, LGR5 is a well-established stem cell marker in many organs, such as intestinal mucosa, colon, stomach, hair follicle, kidney and mammary gland. The studies showed that LGR5 is an essential regulator in the formation and maintenance of adult intestinal stem cells during postembryonic development. LGR null studies in mice suggested that LGR is crucial during embryogenesis and the deficiency of LGR could induce 100% neonatal mortality along with several craniofacial distortions. Additionally, LGR5 is associated with the pathological process of a variety of tumors, such as hepatocellular carcinoma, colon carcinoma, skin cancer, breast cancer and gastric cancer.
Fig.1 Proposed model of the LGR5-mediated promotion of cervical cancer growth via the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. (Chen, 2014)
Application of LGR5 Membrane Protein in Literature
The study shows that the DDX1-LGR5 axis regulates colorectal tumorigenesis, suggesting that DDX1-LGR5 axis may act as the new drug target for colorectal cancer.
The research shows that LGR5 and BMI1 can increase proliferation of pig intestinal epithelial cells via activating WNT/β-catenin signaling.
The study shows that LGR5 may regulate tumorigenesis and metastasis of epithelial ovarian cancer and act as a promising drug target for epithelial ovarian cancer treatment.
The study reveals that LGR5 overexpression is significantly associated with tumor size, LN metastasis status and triple-negative breast cancer as well as reduced relapse-free survival (RFS), suggesting that LGR5 overexpression may be considered as a poor prognostic marker for breast cancer patients.
The research finds that LGR5 and CD133 expressions may represent useful markers associated with tumor progression and resistance to chemoradiotherapy in patients with low rectal cancer.
LGR5 Preparation Options
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