LYVE1, the full protein name is lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronic acid receptor 1, also known as extracellular link domain containing 1 (XLKD1). It is encoded by the LYVE1 gene in humans. LYVE1 is a type I integral membrane glycoprotein that acts as a receptor and binds to soluble and immobilized hyaluronic acid. It is homologous to the HA receptor CD44 and therefore acts as hyaluronic acid (HA) transporter, modulating the uptake of catabolism in lymphatic endothelial cells.
|Basic Information of LYVE1|
|Protein Name||Lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronic acid receptor 1|
|Aliases||CRSBP-1, HAR, LYVE-1, XLKD1, lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1|
|Organism||Homo sapiens (Human)|
LYVE1 is mainly expressed in the lumen and luminal surface of the lymphatic endothelium and in the hepatic sinusoidal endothelium. This expression pattern suggests that LYVE1 not only participates in the degradation after HA internalization but also involves the transport of HA from the tissue to the lymphatic lumen. LYVE1 localizes HA to the lymphatic surface and may affect immune response or tumor metastasis. HA binds to CD44 when LYVE-1 is present in vitro, therefore, HA is localized in the lymphatic vessels guided by LYVE1, providing a substrate for the transfer of CD44+ leukocytes or tumor cells. In addition to liver and lymphatic endothelial cells, LYVE1 is also expressed in Kupffer cells, cortical neurons and renal epithelial cells, which plays a role in lymphatic hyaluronic acid transport. Moreover, LYVE1 is a cell surface receptor on lymphatic endothelial cells and can be used as a marker for lymphatic endothelial cells.
Fig.1 Possible roles of LYVE1 in the lymphatic system. (Jackson, 2011)
The authors conclude that the lack of lymphatic endothelial cell-specific markers leads to the absence of lymphatic capacity in infantile hemangiomas.
The authors outline a number of molecules used as markers for lymphatic endothelial detection, including the hyaluronic acid receptor LYVE-1, and how LYVE-1 plays a role in lymphatic and tumor metastasis.
The article determines the presence or absence of lymphatic vessels in the vascularized human cornea by using immunohistochemistry with a new marker of lymphatic endothelium.
The article shows that LYVE-1 is not specific to lymphatic vessels, it is also present in normal hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells in mice and humans, and the presence of LYVE-1 in hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells is also observed.
The article shows that LYVE-1 is the major receptor for HA on the lymphatic wall. LYVE-1 is the first lymphoid-specific HA receptor to be characterized and is a unique and powerful marker used in the lymphatic vessels themselves.
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