Introduction of MC1R
MC1R, encoded by MC1R gene, is a member of G-protein coupled receptor family which has seven transmembrane regions. It primarily exists on the surface of melanocytes which produce a pigment called melanin. This receptor is one of the key proteins that participate in the regulation of mammalian skin and hair color by mediating the production of two types of melanin in melanocytes.
|Basic Information of MC1R|
|Protein Name||Melanocyte-stimulating hormone receptor|
|Aliases||CMM5, MSH-R, SHEP2|
|Organism||Homo sapiens (Human)|
Function of MC1R Membrane Protein
MC1R plays a critical role in the mediating of normal pigmentation and skin to sun sensitivity via control the types of melanin production by melanocytes. The melanin produced by melanocytes has two types, eumelanin and pheomelanin. People with eumelanin tend to have brown or black pigment and eumelanin protects skin from damage caused by ultraviolet (UV) radiation in sunlight. People with pheomelanin tend to have yellow or red pigment and increased risk of skin damage. Moreover, some studies have been indicated that MC1R mutation is associated with non-melanoma skin cancer. Besides, MC1R is also existed in other cells except for melanocytes and involved in other biological responses. It is reported that MC1R regulates pain sensation and lacking MC1R increases tolerance to capsaicin acting and decrease response to chemically induced inflammatory pain. Some studies show that MC1R is involved in the mediation of immune and inflammation responses and linked to the sepsis susceptibility.
Fig.1 MSH-MC1R regulation pathway of pigment genes. (Steck, 2014)
Application of MC1R Membrane Protein in Literature
The article displays that the effect of MC1R variants on melanoma susceptibility is different in males and females. This could help to better classify melanoma risk factors between the sexes.
The study identifies that MC1R polymorphisms C901T is associated with the white coat colour, while 23delT/T and an SNP G25A in ASIP gene are associated with both black and dark brown coat colours. It is the first evidence of candidate polymorphisms associated with Mendelian traits in the dromedary.
The authors suggest that measuring the MC1R genotype might result in a benefit for melanoma prediction. The results could be a valid starting point to guide the development of scientific protocols assessing melanoma risk prediction tools incorporating the MC1R genotype.
The study shows that MC1R variants reduce the age at diagnosis in all groups and is associated with an increased prevalence of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), especially in patients with familial melanoma without CDKN2A mutations.
The study shows that MC1R is widely expressed during human, chick and mouse embryonic and fetal stages in many somatic tissues, particularly in the musculoskeletal and nervous systems, and conserved across evolution in these three amniotes.
MC1R Preparation Options
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