The d-block or transition metal ions manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and to a more specialized degree, molybdenum (Mo), tungsten (W) and vanadium (V), have been shown to play essential roles in many biological processes. They can act as structural components of bimolecular, as signaling molecules, as catalytic cofactors in reversible reactions, and so on. The transport of important metals and nutrient substances across tight membrane barriers, such as the blood-brain barrier, is mediated by certain particular mechanisms. Specific transporters carry metals on the apical surface, export them to the basolateral surface, and participate in their intracellular distribution. Transporters for each of the major metal have been identified, calcium (Ca), iron and zinc. Additionally, these transporters can also mediate non-essential metal transports to pass through the tight membrane barrier. For example, the iron transporter in the intestine, divalent metal transporter 1(DMT1), mediates the uptake of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb).
Here show the part of metal transporters in humans. The expression of genes encoding plasma membrane-bound transporters allowing for the high-affinity uptake of special metal ions into the cytosol is typically constitutive or “on” under unstressed homeostatic conditions. The levels of crucial metals are strictly regulated by transporters. When the dietary degree of these metals is low, levels of the corresponding transporters rise in intestines, after which there is a potentially rising for the transport of toxic metals.
Depending on cutting-edge Magic™ membrane protein production platform, Creative Biolabs would like to provide the preparation of these protein products in required formats by utilizing different strategies, for instance, detergent micelles, proteoliposomes, nanodiscs, lipoparticles, polymers, stable cell line.
At the same time, our classical Magic™ membrane protein antibody discovery platform can assist to discover antibodies against these membrane proteins, even fully humanized antibodies, via many different approaches such as hybridoma technology, phage display technology, etc. Besides, we also present DNA immunization service for anti-membrane protein antibody development. Please feel free to contact us for more details.