Introduction of MTNR1A
MTNR1A, also known as melatonin receptor 1A, MEL-1A-R, MT1, is an approximately 39.4 kDa G protein-coupled and seven-transmembrane receptor. This protein consists of 350 amino acids and in humans, is encoded by MTNR1A gene mapping to the chromosome 4q35.2. MTNR1A codes for one of two high-affinity forms of the receptor for melatonin, a primary hormone released by pineal glands. And melatonin receptors are split into two subtypes containing MTNR1A and MTNR1B, which are widely detected both in the brain as well as in the retina with high concentrations. MTNR1A is an integral membrane protein that belongs to the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily. It is readily found and localized in two particular regions of the brain, including the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus and hypophysial pars tuberalis.
|Basic Information of MTNR1A|
|Protein Name||Melatonin receptor type 1A|
|Aliases||Mel-1A-R, Mel1a receptor|
|Organism||Homo sapiens (Human)|
Function of MTNR1A Membrane Protein
As reported, the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus may be implicated in circadian rhythm while the hypophysial pars tuberalis appears to take charge of the reproductive effect on melatonin. Melatonin is able to alter the timing of mammalian circadian rhythms and regulates reproductive modifications occurred in response to changes in day length of seasonally breeding mammals. So, it is indicated that MTNR1A as a melatonin receptor is likely to mediate two main melatonin effects on mammalian circadian actions and reproductive alterations influenced by day length. Except that, this receptor has other agonists, involving afobazole and agomelatine. The activity of MTNR1A is modulated by pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins which can inhibit adenylate cyclase activities. It has a number of associated pathways that are circadian rhythm-related genes and peptide ligand-binding receptors. There are several diseases related to MTNR1A mutations, including scoliosis and idiopathic scoliosis.
Fig.1 Subcellular localization analysis and the putative tertiary structure of AccMTNR1A from Apis cerana cerana. (Li, 2018)
Application of MTNR1A Membrane Protein in Literature
The paper objective was to characterize and identify causative SNPs in the MTNR1A gene taking charge of the reproductive seasonality traits in the Rasa Aragonesa sheep breed. Authors had indicated that the T allele in the SNP rs403212791 of MNTR1A gene was correlated with a lower TDA and a higher P4CM and OCM value in this sheep breed.
The results demonstrated that the activation of MT1 signaling at night controls insulin sensitivity during the day by regulating the PI3K transcription and activity. And there was evidence that the reduced expression of MTNR1A (MT1) in the liver of diabetic cases was connected with poorly restrained diabetes.
Together, experimental data suggested that in injured tissues, decreased PITX1 level at the MTNR1A promoter regions resulted in reduced expressions of MTNR1A in renal tubular epithelial cells, which elevated the risk of Membranous nephropathy (MN) in the future.
In this study, the authors found an MTNR from Apis cerana cerana (AccMTNR1A), which contained a typical 7-transmembrane domain common to this receptor family. An analysis revealed that AccMTNR1A was localized in the cytomembrane. In addition, cold stress was found to apparently boost AccMTNR1A transcription, indicating AccMTNR1A may connect to the cold stress response.
This article suggested that melatonin and MTNR1A played a critical role in modulating bovine granulosa cells (GCs) function by regulating cellular progress, such as apoptosis, hormones secretion, along with reproduction-related genes. Moreover, the altered expression of MTNR1A affected how bovine GCs responded to the melatonin.
MTNR1A Preparation Options
To obtain the completely functional target protein, Creative Biolabs offers robust reconstitution forms with various active formats for membrane proteins. Our powerful Magic™ membrane protein production platform can enable lots of flexible options, from which you could pick up the best match for your particular projects. Aided by our versatile Magic™ anti-membrane protein antibody discovery platform, we also provide customized anti-MTNR1A antibody development services.
As a professional research institute and a leading custom service provider in the field of membrane protein production, Creative Biolabs has obtained recognition around the world for accomplishing challenging projects successfully. Now, we are proud of providing multiple and mature membrane protein preparation services in required formats using diverse strategies. Please feel free to contact us for more information.