Introduction of MTNR1B
MTNR1B, also known as melatonin receptor 1B, melatonin receptor 1B variant B, melatonin receptor MEL1B, FGQTL2 or MT2, is an integral membrane protein with 362 amino acids and has a molecular mass of approximately 40 kDa. In humans, it is encoded by the MTNR1B gene localized at the chromosome 11q14.3. MTNR1B is one of two high-affinity forms of a receptor for melatonin, which is a major hormone secreted by the pineal gland. Melatonin receptors are split into two subtypes including MTNR1A and MTNR1B. And MTNR1B is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family and has seven transmembrane domains, intracellular C-terminal domain, as well as an extracellular N-terminal domain. Comparative real-time PCR displayed that this protein is expressed in the retina and, to a lesser extent, in the brain.
|Basic Information of MTNR1B|
|Protein Name||Melatonin receptor type 1B|
|Aliases||Mel-1B-R, Mel1b receptor|
|Organism||Homo sapiens (Human)|
Function of MTNR1B Membrane Protein
It is believed that the membrane protein MTNR1B is involved in light-dependent functions in the retina and is likely to participate in the neurobiological effects of melatonin. Melatonin is a hormone released by the brain pineal gland when it is dark, whose signals contribute to sleep and help to coordinate many essential physiological processes during sleep, such as metabolism, appetite regulation, heart rate and blood pressure. It has been identified to play a critical role in the etiology of AIS and scoliosis development. MTNR1B has several related pathways including circadian rhythm-related genes and peptide ligand-binding receptors. A number of diseases associated with this gene are diabetes mellitus and noninsulin-dependent and idiopathic scoliosis. The recent study has confirmed that MTNR1B mutations are correlated with the elevated average blood glucose level and around 20% increased the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Additionally, MTNR1B shares a high degree of sequence homology with GPR50, which heterodimerizes with MTNR1A or MTNR1B in vitro and in intact cells.
Fig.1 The regulation of uterine contractions mediated through the circadian clock and hMNTR1B. (Beesley, 2015)
Application of MTNR1B Membrane Protein in Literature
The study found that the MAPK signaling pathway was inhibited in MIN6 cells by treatment with melatonin or overexpressed MTNR1B. The knockdown of MTNR1B attenuated the modulating effect of melatonin on insulin expression totally. That may show that melatonin inhibited the insulin transcription by MTNR1B and downstream MAPK signaling pathway.
The paper analyzed whether the rs10830963 genetic variant of MTNR1B was associated with changes in lipid levels when responded to dietary interventions with diverse macronutrient distribution in 722 overweight subjects from the POUNDS Lost trial.
This study suggested that plasma melatonin levels in T2D patients were decreased and there was an association between MTNR1B rs10830963 GG genotype with elevated fasting blood glucose (FBG). So, the reduced titer of melatonin and altered FBG due to MTNR1B genetic variant may work as a potent risk factor towards T2D in Gujarat population.
The interaction of dinner timing and MTNR1B facilitated a causal role of endogenous melatonin in the damage of glucose tolerance. All results from this article suggested that changing the dinner to an earlier time may lead to a better glucose tolerance, especially in MTNR1B carriers.
In conclusion, the evidence displayed that melatonin and MTNR1B were implicated in BCL2 family and CASP3-dependent apoptotic pathway in bovine GCs. MTNR1A and MTNR1B possibly coordinated the action of medicating the appropriate melatonin response to GCs.
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