Neuromedin receptor family (NMRs) belongs to GPCRs superfamily, whose endogenous ligand is neuromedin, one type of neuropeptides and can be used by neurons in signal communications. Different neuromedins are discovered and entitled based on their distribution and physiological roles. Corresponding with the ligands, neuromedin U receptor (NMUR) and neuromedin B receptor (NMBR) are conducted in-depth study. NMUR can bind neuromedin U, the first neuropeptide isolated from the porcine spinal and widely expressed in the gastrointestinal, genitourinary and CNS. NMURs are currently divided into two subtypes: NMUR1 and NMUR2, and both of them can mediate diverse biological effects including contraction of the uterus, peripheral vasoconstriction causing hypertension and activation of the HPA axis resulting in decreased food intake via the CRH system. NMBR is the receptor of neuromedin B, which is a bombesin-related peptide and originally purified from pig spinal cord, and later shown to be present in human CNS and gastrointestinal tract. NMBR plays important roles in the regulation of endocrine and exocrine secretion, smooth muscle contraction, body temperature, blood pressure, feeding, and cell growth.
Here show partial members of NMRs, including NMUR1, NMUR2, and NMBR. NMUR1 is expressed in the periphery system (especially in the gastrointestinal tract), while NMUR2 is expressed in the CNS (especially in the substantia nigra, medulla oblongata and pontine reticular formation). NMBR is widespread in the CNS, olfactory nucleus and thalamic regions with high levels, and in lower levels in the frontal cortex, dendate gyrus, amygdala, and dorsal raphe.
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