Introduction of NOX4
NOX4, encoded by the gene NOX4, belongs to the NOX-family of enzymes and is the catalytic subunit of the NADPH oxidase complex. NOX4 acts as an oxygen sensor and is able to catalyze the molecular oxygen reduced to diverse reactive oxygen species (ROS) in non-phagocytic cells. NOX4 shares only about 40% identity with NOX2. There are several NOX4 splice variants have been reported in humans, but only one NOX4 is found in amphioxus. Except for the strong expression in the kidney, NOX4 mRNA is also found in osteoclasts, endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, hematopoietic stem cells, ﬁbroblasts, keratinocytes, melanoma cells, and neurons.
|Basic Information of NOX4|
|Protein Name||NADPH oxidase 4|
|Aliases||Kidney oxidase-1, Renal NAD(P)H-oxidase, Kidney superoxide-producing NADPH oxidase|
|Organism||Homo sapiens (Human)|
Function of NOX4 Membrane Protein
NOX4 is a part of NADPH oxidase, which can produce superoxide after the formation of a complex with CYBA/p22phox. Mainly expressed by in endothelial cells and distal tubular cells in the kidney cortex, NOX4 can mediate signaling cascades potentially by phosphatases inhibition. NOX4 may function as an oxygen sensor in the mediation of KCNK3/TASK-1 potassium channel and HIF1A activity. NOX4 is reported to play important roles in bone resorption, apoptosis and lipopolysaccharide-mediated activation of N NF-κB. Besides, NOX4 can protect the vasculature against inflammatory stress. Nox-dependent reactive oxygen species modulation by amino endoperoxides can induce apoptosis in high Nox4-expressing cancer cells. NOX4 can interact with protein disulfide isomerase and TLR4.
Fig.1 Structure of Vascular NADPH oxidases. (Schulz, 2008)
Application of NOX4 Membrane Protein in Literature
This article gives a detailed description of NOX4 including its gene, structure, pathological significance and physiological function. The introduction of Nox4 is very comprehensive, including cancer, ROS, hydrogen peroxides, cardiovascular diseases and many other aspects of NOX4.
This article suggests that the NADPH oxidase Nox4 is an endogenous enzyme which plays a critical role in the anti-atherosclerotic pathway. Additionally, it finds that Nox4 inhibitors may have cardiovascular side-effects.
This article carries out an in-depth research of Nox4 acting as a hydrogen peroxide-generating oxygen sensor.
This article demonstrates that Nox4 plays a special role in hypoxia- and exercise-induced angiogenesis through a dual mechanism of maintaining vascular endothelial growth factor and preventing angiopoietin 1 expression, suggesting that the developmental angiogenesis is Nox4 independent.
This article suggests that the inhibition of Nox4 may be a new therapeutic approach of Tanshinone IIA to prevent glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis and osteoblasts apoptosis.
NOX4 Preparation Options
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